Biographical Note

Scope and Content

Digital Content

Restrictions on Access

Restrictions on Use

Inventory   [ + ]

Subject Terms


Guide to the Mark M. Litchman Papers



Manuscript Collection No.: 0165
Creator: Litchman, Mark M., 1887-1960
Title: Mark M. Litchman papers
Date Span: 1901-1965
Quantity: 8.23 cubic feet
Languages: Collection materials are in English.




Biographical Note

Attorney, civil rights activist, Jewish communal leader.

Mark M. Litchman was born in New York City in 1887. Meyer, the name by which he was known as a youth, worked his way through school as a newspaper boy on the city’s Lower East Side. In 1902, just seven days before the termination of the Philippine Insurrection, he enlisted as a naval apprentice. He was just 14 years old, having lied about his age, and became the youngest veteran of the Spanish-American War. After his discharge in 1903 he led an itinerant life. He worked as a farm hand, sailed around the Horn aboard a French windjammer, and tramped from one European port to the next in search of work.

Litchman moved to Seattle in 1908, attracted to the University of Washington’s tuition-free law school. Mark Litchman, as he was now known, passed the bar in 1913. Shortly thereafter he joined the Socialist Party, embarking upon a law career characterized by its social activism. His tramps over land and sea, he noted in the 1930s, had given him “both a heart and a viewpoint for the underdog, and my early ideal, which furnished the dynamic urge, was to become a lawyer for the downtrodden.” Early in his career, he served as advocate of socialists in cases of political discrimination; defended foreign-born radicals faced with punitive deportation during the Red Scare; advocated the eight-hour work day; represented the labor daily, the Seattle Union Record, against charges of sedition; and made an idealistic, and unsuccessful, legal challenge against a legislative enactment imposing tuition at the UW, arguing that fees imposed a discriminatory burden on the poor. In 1921 he founded and served as first president of the Seattle Labor College, which offered free courses on various subjects taught by UW professors and other community members. Sometime around 1923, however, he loosened his binding ties with both the labor and the socialist movements. He had become increasingly disillusioned by the power he believed concentrated in the hands of the “big boys” of the labor movement. Among the socialists, many radicals distrusted lawyers as inherently unsound ideologically, even if their legal knowledge could on occasion prove useful. Litchman grew tired of this distrust and the ideological dogmatism that inspired it.

The move from his formerly exclusive association with labor and socialism did not temper his desire to fight for social justice. He helped organize the Master Cleaners and Dyers Association, and represented many of its members. His success in the 1926 federal court case Stevedoring v. Haverty abolished the Fellow-Servant Doctrine for dock workers. A 1933 victory in McDonald v. Stevenson sustained the constitutionality of the first Old Age Pension Act. The same year he represented over a hundred Yakima farm workers arrested and detained on charges of assault, vagrancy, or criminal syndicalism in the notorious “Yakima 100” case. He managed to avoid a costly and prolonged trial by getting the prisoners released on the condition that they leave the county within ten days and not return for at least twelve months. (Twelve of the prisoners agreed to plead guilty to vagrancy, but were released immediately since they had already served more than the customary ninety-day sentence). He prided himself on his success in resolving the case without trial, taking great satisfaction in his “enthusiastic” support of conciliation in labor disputes. His skill in evading antagonistic trials whenever possible, he once noted ruefully, was “perhaps . . . why I am not internationally known.”

Litchman’s other legal, political and professional activities were numerous. He served as Legal Advisor to the Washington State Legislature for four sessions between 1935 and 1941, drafting over 1000 bills. In 1938, he was appointed to the state Senate, but did not stand for re-election. He served on the boards of B’nai B’rith and Seattle Chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union. He served as program director for the Seattle Bar Association and as secretary for the Seattle Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild. He was appointed as a charter member of the King County Housing Authority in 1939 and served as a director for over 20 years. He was also a member of the King County Advisory Committee on Social Security. Litchman was a founder of the Seattle post of the Jewish War Veterans and was Judge Advocate of the Department of Washington and Alaska, United War Veterans. During WWI he served in the U.S. Merchant Marine.

Litchman was a sought-after lecturer and prolific writer. His works ranged in style and substance from essays on legal philosophy to pulp fiction. He had begun to work on, but never completed, a novel based on his own life. Mark M. Litchman died in 1960.

Scope and Content

The Litchman papers contain material on a rich array of subjects, including: civil rights, immigration law, labor relations, union activity (including the Industrial Workers of the World), housing, social welfare, commerce law, religious issues, and the entire spectrum of politics (Litchman once bragged about his familiarity with “the -isms, -ologies and -onomies.”) The collection includes personal papers, correspondence, court papers, and numerous political pamphlets. Subgroups include King County Housing Authority, King County Advisory Committee on Social Security, Technocracy, ACLU, and B’nai B’rith. For an account of Litchman’s fight on the behalf of civil liberties, see Albert F. Gunns, Civil Liberties in Crisis: The Pacific Northwest, 1917-1940 (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1983). A brief mention of his activities on behalf of the Yakima 100 is found in James G. Newbill, “Yakima and the Wobblies, 1910-1936,” in At the Point of Production: The Local History of the IWW, ed. Joseph Conlin, 167-190, (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1981). Additional information on cases Litchman argued in state or in federal court may be obtainable through online database. Consult with the reference staff in Special Collections for more information. The Law Library also contains copies of briefs filed in cases argued before the Washington State Supreme Court, the state Appellate Court, and the Federal Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. Sophie Litchman and Mark L. Litchman, Jr., his widow and son, donated accession no. 0165-001 in May, 1961. Mark, Jr., donated accession no. 0165-002 in October 1969.

Digital Content

Restrictions on Access

Open to all users.

Restrictions on Use

Literary rights of Mark Litchman Sr. and Mark Litchman Jr. transferred to the University of Washington.


Inventory

  
Accession No. 0165-001
Mark M. Litchman papers , circa 1906-1960
2.50 cu. ft.
Scope and Content
Correspondence, legal materials, ephemera, clippings, ca. 1906-1960.
Digital Content/Other Formats
View selections from this collection in digital format.
Restrictions on Access
Open to all users.
Restrictions on Use
Literary rights of Mark Litchman Sr. and Mark Litchman Jr. transferred to the University of Washington.
Acquisition Info
Sophie Litchman (widow) and Mark Litchman (son), May 9, 1961.
Box/FolderDate
Personal Papers
Biographical Material
1/1Litchman, Barney L.
1/2-3Litchman, Mark M.
1/4-7Birth Certification- Mark Litchman
1/8-11Campaign Materials
Litchman for Superior Court Judge (62 items)1936
Incoming Letters
1/12Americans for Democratic Action (12 items)1954
1/13-14Davidson, Julius (10 Items)1926-33
1/15Litchman, Barney J. (6 items)1920-56
1/16-2General Correspondence1906-60
Court Papers
3/1-8Anderson, Frank (Yakima)
3/9-10Litchman, et al v. University of Washington
3/11McDonald v. Stevenson, John C.
3/12McInerney, James E.
3/13-16Malakoff, Lewis J.
3/17Miller George E,
3/18Ernst, Charles F.
3/19Smith, LeRoy
3/20-32Deportation Cases1918-20
3/34-40Seattle Union Record1919
4/1International Stevedoring Company v. Haverty1926
4/2Miscellaneoous
4/3-43 to 5/1-3Speeches And Writings
5/4-16Navy Discharge Correspondence And Miscellaneous
5/17Photographs
Clippings
5/18re: I.W.W. in Yakima1933
5/19-6/1Miscellaneous
6/2 Newspaper- The Forge 11-1-1919
6/3Ephemera
American Union Against Militarism. Civil Liberties Bureau.
Thomas, Norman M. War’s Heretics. 1917
Americans for Democratic Action
ADA Makes Good News-
Appeal to Reason.
Soviet Constitution undated
Associated Industries of Seattle.
Revolution. Wholesale Strikes, Boycotts. undated
Bureau of Business Research. UW, Seattle, WA
Rainboth, Edity Dyer and Bayard O. Wheeler.
The Public Low-Rent Housing Market of the Housing Authority of the County of King 1949
Communist Party of America.
Program and Constitution. 1921
Community Counseling Service.
The Teeners’ Crimescope undated
CIO. Department of Research and Education
Good Shelter for Everyone 1944
Huebsch, B.W.
Bullitt, William C. The Bullitt Mission to Russia 1919
Industrial University. Koyeniowske, T. and J. Patrick Ryan.
Engineering, a Treatise on Workers Control and Management of Industry undated
Industrial Workers of the World.
Brissenden, Paul F. Justice and the First World War undated
Constitution and By-laws 1905
Trautman, William E. One Great Union undated
Twenty-five Years of Industrial Unionism 1930
Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America
On Target undated
Raymond, Harry. Reminiscences of the Early Days of the Jewish
War Veterans of the United States.
Why I Joined the Jewish War Veterans of the U.S.A. (various authors) undated
The JWV of the U.S.A. and the National Ladies Auxiliary
In Action
Kerr, Charles H. and Company.
Engels, Frederick. Socialism, Utopian and Scientific 1912
Williams, Albert Rhys. Soviet Russia 1919
Leader Press
Baird, J. E. Songs of Socialism undated
6/4Liberator Publishing Company
Max Eastman’s Address to the Jury in the Second Masses Trial 1918
Littlebooks Library
Francis, Philip. The Poison in America’s Cup 1919
Marxian Educational Society
Bucharin, N. and Pregorarchensky, E. ABC of Communism 1921
Moyle (George W.) Publishing Company
Bower, W.M. Idols 1922
T he Nation Press, Inc.
Decrees and Constitution of Soviet Russia undated
National Civil Liberties Bureau
Angell, Norman. Why Freedom Matters. 1918
The Truth About the I.W.W. 1918
New York Evening Post
Northwest District Defense Committee
Progress Printing Company
Rand School of Social Science
Socialist Labor Party
6/5Socialist Party of Canada
Manifesto. (two copies)undated
Trade Union Educational League.
United Spanish War Veterans
United States Printing Office
Washington Office of Unemployment and Compensation
Washington Commonwealth Federation
Washington State Committee to Defeat Initiative No. 130
Workers’ International Industrial Union
Young Workers’ League of America
6/6Ephemera
The New Thought Society of Seattle1912, 14, n.d
Seattle Labor College1922-24
Soul of Man Under Socialism. n.a. [with poem on recto of last leaf to Sophie Marks Litchman from and by Jack Rawson] undated
Washington Commonwealth Builders
Miscellaneous
King County. Housing Authority
6/7-10General Correspondence1939-54
6/11-12Minutes 1937-39
6/13-14Reports1937-54
6/15Ephemeraundated
King County. Advisory Committee On Social Security
6/16-19Reports1937-39, 1941-60
Technocracy
6/20By-laws, Constitution And Articles Of Incorporation1934-35
6/21Duplicates

  
Accession No. 0165-002
Mark M. Litchman papers , 1901-1965 (Bulk: 1915-1960)
5.73 cu. ft. (14 boxes)
Scope and Content
Correspondence, writings, case files, briefs, biographical features, photographs, clippings, pamphlets, notes, clippings, reports, minutes.
Includes records of King County Housing Authority, National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials, Puget Sound Chapter, and personal papers of his son, Mark Litchman Jr., an attorney and state legislator, and wife, Sophie Litchman.
Restrictions on Access
Open to all users.
Restrictions on Use
Literary rights of Mark Litchman Sr., and Mark Litchman Jr. transferred to the Univerity of Washington.
Acquisition Info
Mark L. Litchman, October 2, 1969.
Box/FolderDate
Personal Papers
1/1Biographical Features1960, undated
General Correspondence
1/2Baritz, Moses1920
1/3Black, Hugo L.1933
1/4Bone, Homer T.1935, 1937
1/5Brannin, Carl1934-1939
1/6Central Labor Council, Seattle & Everett1920, 1937
1/7Coffee, John M.1937-42
1/8Cohane, Louis S.1948
1/9The Detroit News1943
1/10Goldstein, Rose1917-1941
1/11Greenhalgh, Kate1937-1939, undated
1/12Hall, Calvin S.1926-1942
1/13Harper's Magazine1937-1944, undated
1/14Institute of General Semantics1939
1/15The Jewish Transcript1932-1937, undated
1/16Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America1958, undated
1/17Lenninger, August1942, undated
1/18Litchman, Bernard (Barney) L.1913-1960, undated
1/19Litchman, Jeanette, et al1937, 1959-1960, undated
1/20Litchman, Mark Jr.1944-1955, undated
1/21Litchman, Sophie1919-1922
1/22National Jewish Welfare Board1958
1/23National Lawyers Guild1939
1/24Newsboys' Union, (AFL). Local 158341917
1/25Russian American Industrial Corporation. Washington Branch1922
1/26Seattle Bar Association1940
1/27Sedran, Barney1951-1952
1/28Sedran, Samuel1952
1/29Washington State Bar Association1953
1/30Women's Modern Study Club1934
1/31Zioncheck, Marion A.1934
1/32-40Miscellaneous A-Z1915-1960
1/41Unidentified1940, undated
Case Files
2/1Clithero v. Showalter1930, undated
2/2-3Constantino, et al v. Moreschi, et al1940
2/4-8Crabtree v. Seattle Building Trades Council1957-1959, undated
2/9-12Foley matter (re: patents)1921-1937, undated
2/13Gray, et al v. Kelso, et al1938
2/14Horowitz, Herman A.1936-1937
3/1International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. Local Union
No. 46 (Agreement with National Electrical Contractors'
Association. Seattle Division)1956-1958, undated
3/2International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. Local Union
No. 46 (Oil Burner Agreement)1947, 1956, undated
3/3International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. Local Union
No. 46 v. Sutch, d/b/a Eastern Heating1956-1959, undated
3/4-7International Stevedoring Company v. Haverty1924-1925, undated
3/8Jewish Transcript v. Power Plant Engineering Companyundated
3/9Labor Consumers' League1941-1944
3/10Labor Consumers' League v. Huggins and Badderman1943-1944
3/11-12Litchman, et al v. Shannon, et al1915-1916, undated
3/13In re McDonald, Kate B.1917
3/14Operative Plasterers and Cement Masons International Association of the U.S. and Canada. Local 528 (re: strike against Associated
General Contractors of America, Inc.)1956-1958
4/1-2Seattle Building Trades Council1957-1960, undated
4/3In re Smith, Tom1940
4/4In re Turco, Frank1920
4/5Unemployed Citizens' League (King County v. Port of Seattle)1932
4/6United States of America v. Feeley1948-1952
4/7United States of America v. Wells, et al1917, undated
4/8Voyce Matterundated
4/9Western Washington District Council of Laborers (contract with Associated General Contractors of America, Inc.)1948, undated
4/10Western Washington District Council of Laborers (Defective Appliance)1943, undated
4/11Western Washington District Council of Laborers- Legislative1942-1943, undated
4/12Wingrove v. Record Press1938-1939,undated
4/13-14Woods v. Feeley1948-1952, undated
4/15Yakima 100undated
Briefs
4/16Cleaners & Dyers, Local 183 v. Northwest Trust and State Bank and the Seattle Labor Temple Associationundated
4/17-18Hartwood Lumber Company v. Alto1924
4/19Litchman v. Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Companyundated
5/1Rudder v. United States of Americaundated
5/2State of Washington ex rel Boyle v. Ernestundated
5/3State of Washington ex rel McDonald v. Board of County Commissioners of King Countyundated
5/4Wolck (a.k.a. Wolfe) v. U.S. Commissioner of Immigrationundated
Hearing Transcripts
5/5Temporary National Economic Committee1941
Speeches And Writings
Fiction
5/6"The Adopted Brother"undated
5/7"Advice, It's Hard to Take"1944-1945
5/8"Albert Einstein"undated
5/9"All in the Name of Love"1941, undated
5/10"All is not Fair in Love and War"1942, undated
5/11"A Bed-Time Story of Life for Children"1944
5/12"Crazy as a Fox"1942
5/13"Does a Rooster Reason?"1930
5/14"Dreamy Dick"1938, 1941, undated
5/15"Eve Versus Adam"1942, undated
5/16"The First Impression"undated
5/17"The Funeral Sermon"1942, undated
5/18"The Iceberg Queen"1941-1942, undated
5/19"Governmental Shanghaiing"undated
5/20"The Lady Next Door"1942-1944, undated
5/21"Life Goes On"1942, undated
5/22"The Locked Heart"1942, undated
5/23"The Love that was Dumb"undated
5/24"Love vs. Law"1943, undated
5/25" A Man Among Men"1934-1935, undated
5/26"Marriage is a Business"1944, undated
5/27"A Martyr to a Broken Heart"undated
5/28"Messenger #49"1942, undated
5/29"Monkey Face"1937-1938, undated
5/30"The Obstacle"1942
5/31"A Pair of Suspenders"1942, undated
5/32"A Picture on the Wall"1941-1942, undated
5/33" The Right to Choose, Peace or War"1939, undated
5/34"She Chose the Executive Director"undated
5/35Story Ideasundated
6/1Story Technique- Course Materialsundated
6/2" A Teacher Takes a Lesson"1942, undated
6/3" The Thank Godders"undated
6/4"There's Power in Words"1942-1944, undated
6/5"Turning Unrequited Love Into a Constructive Force"1942, undated
6/6"The Two Candles"1942
6/7Untitled1942, undated
6/8"We're Sawing Wood"1935-1938
6/9"Yes, There is Hope for a Better Civilization"1942, undated
6/10"Youth Points the Way"1942, undated
Draft Writings
6/11-15Novel- Chapters 1-25undated
6/16-17Miscellaneousundated
Articles
7/1"Armed Services Apprenticeships vs. Juvenile Delinquency"1957, undated
7/2"Biology"undated
7/3"Congress Should Declare War Against the Depression"1932-1933, undated
7/4"Economics, The Basis of Law"undated
7/5Excerpts from "Germany the Last Four Years" by Germanicusundated
7/6"Four Modern Philosophies and Their Application to Law"1930
7/7"Geographic vs. Occupational Representation in the State of Washington- A Criticism and Remedy"undated
7/8"The Laws of Kosher and Inspected Meat"undated
7/9"Legislative Program of the Washington Commonwealth Federation"undated
7/10"Are Master Butchers Entitled to Life, Liberty and Leisure"undated
7/11"Old Law vs. New Common Law"undated
7/12"The Philosophies of Maimonides, Spinoza, Bergson and Einstein"undated
7/13""A View of the U.S. from Afar"undated
7/14"War Against the Depression- Conscription of Industry"undated
7/15"A Way Out of the Depression"undated
7/16"What Are You Going to Do to Stop the Tragedies of the Sea?"1934
Speeches
7/17"Commerce, Industry, Finance, etc."undated
7/18"Platform of the Party"undated
7/19"A Practical Application of Legal Philosophy in Every Day Law Work"1928
7/20Rubenstein, Ida- Eulogyundated
7/21"The Use and Abuse of Stare Decisis"undated
7/22"The Wagner-Connery Act"undated
Published Writings
7/23"Contribution of Jews to Human Progress"- Introduction and Articles I-VIIundated
7/24The Jewish Transcript (various articles)undated
7/25The Seattle Legal News (various articles)1930
7/26"Should the Judges Make the Law?"1928
7/27Western Meat Journal (various articles)1935-1936
Speeches and Writings- of Others
7/28Shorter, Awilda- "Fur Coat Hostess Gown"1943, undated
7/29-30Miscellaneous1929-1958, undated
8/1Personal Documents
8/2Affidavits1918
8/3Business Cardsundated
8/4-11Calendars1945-1961
9/1Certificates1904-1939
9/2Consular Papers1906-1907
9/3Financial Records1933-1954
9/4Memorabilia1917, undated
9/5-11Notebooks1941-1955, undated
9/12Wills1928, 1960
10/1Legislation1932-1937, undated
10/2-3Drafts1935-1945, undated
Ephemera
10-4Communist Party1932-1941,undated
10/5-7Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W.)1922, 1932-1933, undated
10/8Jewish1917-1958
10/9Seattle Labor College1922-1923
10/10Socialist Party1932, undated
10/11Soviet Union1942-1947
10/12-14Miscellaneous A-F1909-1962
11/1-7Miscellaneous G-Z1909-1962
Subject Series
11/8Alliance for Distributive Democracy1944, undated
11/9Fournier Matter1958-1959
11/10Judicial Campaign1959
11/11Legal Research1959, undated
11/12Naval Pension1952-1958, undated
11/13Smith, Tom for Congress1952
News Releases
11/15Temporary National Economic Committee1939
Newsletters
11/16Jewish Labor Committee1943
11/17U.S. Naval Ex-Apprentices Association1953-1958
12/1Publications1931, 1958
12/2-8Notesundated
12/9Photographs1901-1902,
Photographs1955-1957, undated
Clippings
12/10The Jewish Transcript (various articles)undated
12/11Union Record, Seattle (various articles)undated
Clippings Re:
12/12Child Welfare1921-1961, undated
12/13Communism1937, undated
12/14Elderly Rights1938-1954, undated
12/15Housing Board1945-1957, undated
12/16Jewish War Veterans1949-1955
12/17Labor/International Workers of the World (I.W.W.)1921-1958
12/18Legal/Political Miscellaneous1932-1954
12/19Litchman, Mark Jr.1953-1960, undated
12/20Litchman, Sophie and Jeanetteundated
12/21Socialism1916, undated
12/22Miscellaneous1921-1959, undated
American Civil Liberties Union. Washington (and Seattle)
13/1Historical Featuresundated
13/2General Correspondence1953-1955, undated
13/3Minutes1954
13/4Ordinancesundated
13/5Newsletters1953-1954
13/6Policy Statementsundated
13/7Conferences And Conventions
Seminar on Civil Liberties1954
13/8Ephemera1930-1953
13/9Clippings1952
13/10B'nai B'rith. Seattle1941-1953, undated
King County. Housing Authority
13/11General Correspondence1939-1960
13/12Minutes1960
Reports
13/13Audit of Housing Authority1959
13/14Common Housing Survey (White Center- Lakewood Area)1960
13/15Engineering Survey1959
13/16"Housing the People", Housing Authority of the City of Seattle1945
13/17"Public Housing in King County"1946
13/18Notebooksundated
13/19Manuals1939, 1957
13/20Clippings1954
13/21Miscellaneous1954, 1960, undated
National Association Of Housing And Redevelopment Officials. Puget Sound Chapter
Organizational Features
13/22National By-Laws1952
13/23Pacific Northwest Council By-Laws1945-1949
13/24Puget Sound Chapter By-Laws1950-1952
National Association Of Housing And Redevelopment Officials, Puget Sound Chapter
13/25General Correspondence1952-1955, undated
13/26Minutes - Puget Sound Chapter1953-1955
13/27Newsletters1953-1954
13/28Conferences And Conventions1959
13/29Bulletins1954-1955, undated
Workers For Democratic Action
13/30Organizational Featuresundated
Litchman, Mark Jr.
14/1General Correspondence1954,1962
Minutes
14/2Joint Committee on Governmental Cooperation1962
14/3Writingsundated
14/4Campaign Materialsundated
14/5Holiday Cardsundated
Clippings
14/6Writings of Litchman, Mark Jr.1961-1965
14/7-8Miscellaneous1960-1964, undated
14/9Ephemeraundated
14/10Anti-defamation League Of B'nai Brith. Washington State Regional Advisory Board1954-1956
Litchman, Sophie
14/11General Correspondence1943, 1962
14/12Writings1931
14/13Notebooks And Diaries1940, undated
14/14Personal Documents1934-1965, undated
14/15Certificates1916

Subject Terms

Personal Names:
Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981, creator.
Bennett, Adele Parker, creator.
Bone, Homer Truett, 1883-1970, creator.
Brannin, Carl, b. 1888, creator.
Coffee, John Main, 1897-, creator.
De Caux, Len H., creator.
Gordon, Murray B., creator.
Herman, Emil, creator.
Litchman, Mark M.,1887-1960--Archives.
Litchman, Mark, 1925-, creator.
Magnuson, Warren G. (Warren Grant), 1905-1989, creator.
Penrose, Stephen B. L., creator.
Zioncheck, Marion A. (Marion Anthony), 1901-1936, creator.
Organizations:
American Civil Liberties Union, creator.
American Civil Liberties Union of Washington, creator.
American Civil Liberties Union. Seattle Chapter, creator.
Americans for Democratic Action, creator.
B'nai B'rith. Seattle, creator.
B'nai B'rith. Anti-defamation League. Washington State Regional Advisory Board, creator.
Central Labor Council of Seattle and Vicinity, creator.
Detroit News, creator.
Everett Central Labor Council (Wash.), creator.
Harper's Magazine, creator.
Industrial Workers of the World.
Industrial Workers of the World. General Defense Committee, creator.
Institute of General Semantics, creator.
International Workers Defense League, creator.
King County (Wash.). Housing Authority, creator.
King County (Wash.). Housing Authority, creator.
National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials. Puget Sound Chapter, creator.
National Civil Liberties Bureau (U.S.), creator.
National Jewish Welfare Board, creator.
National Lawyers Guild, creator.
National Nonpartisan League., creator.
Newsboys' Union (AFL). Local 15834, creator.
Russian American Industrial Corporation. Washington Branch, creator.
Russian-American Industrial Corporation., creator.
Seattle Bar Association, creator.
Socialist Party (Wash.), creator.
United States. Immigration and Naturalization Service, creator.
Washington Commonwealth Federation, creator.
Washington State Bar Association, creator.
Women's Modern Study Club, creator.
Workers For Democratic Action, creator.
Yakima County (Wash.). Sheriff, creator.
Titles:
Jewish Transcript (Seattle, Wash.)
Seattle Union Record (Seattle, Wash. : 1918)
Last modified: November 14, 2013
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