Biographical Note

Scope and Content

Digital Content/Other Formats

Restrictions on Access

Restrictions on Use

Acquisition Info

Processing Info

Other Finding Aids

Inventory   [ + ]

Subject Terms


Guide to the Zygmunt William Birnbaum Papers



Record Group No.: 19.14.5226
Accession No.: 5266-001
Creator: Birnbaum, Zygmunt William, 1903- , creator
Title: Zygmunt William Birnbaum Papers
Date Span: 1920-2000
Quantity: 6.9 cubic ft. (8 boxes, one oversize folder)
Languages: Collection materials are in English, with a significant portion of the collection in Polish and German, and some in French.
Z.W. Birnbaum, 1958. Special Collections, UW Libraries, UW235260z

Funding for encoding this finding aid was partially provided through a grant awarded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.



Biographical Note

Zygmunt William “Bill” Birnbaum (1903-2000), was for thirty-five years professor of mathematics and statistics at the University of Washington (1939-1974).

Zygmunt William Birnbaum was born in Lwów, Austria-Hungary, on October 18, 1903, to Ignacy and Lina Birnbaum. He attended grade and high schools (gymnasium) in Lwów and Vienna, and then, in deference to his family's wishes that he pursue a "practical" degree, he obtained a master of law degree from the University of Lwów in 1925. He practiced law for a year, but during that time he resumed his studies in mathematics. In 1926 Birnbaum received a teaching certificate in mathematics. He taught at a gymnasium in Lwów from 1925 to 1929 while continuing his graduate studies in mathematics under Hugo Steinhaus and Stefan Banach, among others. He received his Ph.D. in 1929, with Steinhaus as his major professor.

After receiving his Ph.D., Birnbaum went directly to Göttingen, Germany, to continue his studies. Göttingen was central to world mathematics at that time, with such luminaries as David Hilbert, Edmund Landau, Richard Courant, Emmy Noether, and Felix Bernstein, among others, in residence. The city attracted many famous visitors, including Kolmogorov, Alexandrov, and von Mises, during 1929-31, when Birnbaum was there. It was during this time that political events began to portend an uncertain future for Germany generally and academic opportunities for Dr. Birnbaum in particular. Thus it was that he, following advice from Edmund Landau, completed a program leading to an actuarial certificate from Göttingen University's Institute of Insurance Mathematics, then headed by the mathematician-cum-biometrician, Felix Bernstein. In 1931 this permitted him to obtain a position as a life insurance actuary for the Phoenix Life Insurance Company in Vienna and a year later to return to Lwów as chief actuary at the company's Polish subsidiary.

After the Phoenix company went bankrupt in 1936, due in great part to the worsening economic and political conditions in Germany, Dr. Birnbaum decided to try to emigrate to the U.S.A. Although the quotas were full for years to come, he was able to secure employment as a foreign correspondent for a major Polish newspaper. This enabled him to go to New York in June 1937 on a visitor's visa obtained for him by his relative, newspaper editor Ludwik Rubel. During his time in New York, Birnbaum came to know many Central European intellectuals, among them the famed Austrian novelist Hermann Broch, and renewed his friendships with fellow Polish émigré-mathematicians, Mark Kac, Stanislaw Ulam, and others.

Shortly after his arrival in New York, he also met his former Göttingen professor, Felix Bernstein, and accepted from him a research assistantship in biometrics at New York University. His statistical interests and knowledge, which had been kindled during his actuarial studies, grew rapidly under the influence of the leading statisticians at New York and Columbia Universities. In early 1939, Harold Hotelling of Columbia University, a Seattle native with a master's degree in mathematics from the University of Washington, brought to Birnbaum’s attention a position there in the Department of Mathematics. He applied, and supported by letters of recommendation from Courant, Landau, and Albert Einstein, his application was accepted. Thus began his long and distinguished career of over 60 years in the Seattle area, extending well beyond his university retirement in 1974.

Shortly after his arrival in Seattle, Birnbaum met his wife, Hilde Merzbach, while both of them were involved in assisting Jewish refugees arriving from Europe. Birnbaum succeeded in helping many people come to the United States, among them several talented scientists. Despite all of his exhaustive efforts, however, Birnbaum could not rescue his mother, father, and sister before they were taken prisoner by the Germans and transported to Bergen-Belsen. They eventually perished in Auschwitz.

During his long association with the University of Washington, Professor Birnbaum's academic contributions included teaching and service as well as research in the theory and applications of mathematics and statistics. Upon his arrival in Seattle he designed the theoretical courses which formed the basis of one of the first comprehensive undergraduate programs in mathematical statistics in the United States. By 1948 he had founded the Laboratory of Statistical Research which, through its long association with the Office of Naval Research, served to strengthen and expand the graduate and faculty components of these programs.

Professor Birnbaum’s research interests were broad, reflecting the breadth of his early training. He published original material in several areas of mathematics, statistics, and computation and made pioneering studies in reliability and life testing, with important applications in metal fatigue and health statistics. He made significant contributions to complex and functional analysis (including Birnbaum-Orlicz spaces), probabilistic inequalities (e.g. multi-dimensional Chebychev and maximal inequalities), non-parametric and distribution-free statistics (exact, asymptotic, and tabulated distributions), survey non-responses, reliability of complex systems, cumulative damage models, competing risks, survival distributions, and mortality rates.

Birnbaum’s service to his university and professional colleagues, as well as to society at large, went beyond his teaching and research. In 1946 he used his legal and actuarial backgrounds to prepare the legislation that became the statutory basis for the university's retirement system. In 1955 he organized the referendum that resulted in the inclusion of faculty in the social security system. He was responsible for carrying out the 1953 Kingston resolution that all Institute of Mathematical Statistics (IMS) "meetings shall be held on a completely non-segregated basis." He presented the resolution for permanence of this policy at the 1956 Annual IMS meeting held in Seattle. As a plaintiff during 1962-63 in the loyalty oath suit (Baggett v. Bullitt), he was the only witness whose testimony was cited in the U.S. Supreme Court's decision.

In recognition of his many contributions, Z.W. Birnbaum was made a fellow of both the IMS (1949) and the American Statistical Association, and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. Beginning in 1966 he was editor of the Academic Press monograph series in probability and statistics and was elected president of the IMS in 1964. He was also editor of the Annals of Mathematical Statistics during 1967-70. He received both Fullbright and Guggenheim awards with visiting positions held in Stanford, Rome, Jerusalem, and Paris. In 1984 Birnbaum received the prestigious S.S. Wilks Medal of the ASA for "his theoretical research, wide applications, leadership, inspiration and teaching." He died in December 2000.

Scope and Content

The Zygmunt William Birnbaum papers consist of one accession, 5266-1, of roughly seven cubic feet, consisting of many different document types.

The Birnbaum papers contain a great deal of information related to the political climate in Europe before, during, and after the Holocaust and World War II. They also cover scientific progress in mathematics and statistics, and American cultural and academic developments during the Cold War.

The bulk of the collection is made up of correspondence between Dr. Birnbaum and friends, family, scientists, and colleagues. A substantial number of these documents relate to the Second World War and the years immediately before and after that conflict. Many letters document Birnbaum's unsuccessful efforts to get his sister Franzciska into the United States; others show Birnbaum's efforts to provide aid to European scholars and scientists. The documents are mostly in Polish and German, with some in English and a few in French. Thirty-three letters have been translated from Polish into English. The English translations are filed with the original letters. For other documents not translated in full, summary translations were prepared. Significant information from the translator's summaries, or sometimes the summaries themselves, have been transcribed onto or included with the documents.

Birnbaum's speeches and writings are divided into three sub-series. His personal writings include diaries, written in Polish and German, from the 1920s and 1930s, as well as his own English translations of some of these diaries. A selection of personal and autobiographical anecdotes is also included. There are also some notes in English regarding details of correspondence with Ala Manelska and Jozia Altbach just before the war. The academic writings include essays written for a course Birnbaum took to improve his English skills and other manuscripts. Finally, there are approximately seventy reprints of published articles written by Birnbaum.

The case files contain papers related to Birnbaum's involvement in legal proceedings. Of special interest are the case files series relating to opposition to the University of Washington loyalty oath, in which Birnbaum was the only plaintiff whose testimony was cited in the favorable Supreme Court decision. Other case files pertain to two cases concerning roadside billboards and automobile accidents, for which he served as a statistical expert.

The Hilde Merzbach Birnbaum subgroup contains papers of Birnbaum's wife. Other small subgroups document Birnbaum's involvement with professional organizations and UW committees. The most significant of these are the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and the papers for the IMS Advisory Committee on Physical Facilities for Meetings, which relate to the Kingston resolution that all IMS meetings be held on a non segregated basis.

Digital Content/Other Formats

The UW Archives Spotlight on: Zygmunt William Birnbaum website contains translations and further information regarding the letters that have been translated from Polish. Correspondents include Jakob Berger, Maurycy Bloch, Ludwik Rubel, Ala Manelska, Zbigniew Lomnicki, Henry M. Schaerf, Birnbaum's family, and others.

Restrictions on Access

The collection is open to the public.

Restrictions on Use

Birnbaum's rights have been transferred to the University of Washington Libraries.

Acquisition Info

This material was received by the University Archives as a gift from Prof. Birnbaum's daughter, Ann Birnbaum, on July 19, 2001.

Processing Info

Processed in 2003-2004.

Photographs and slides in the collection were relocated to the Zygmunt William Birnbaum Photograph Collection, PH Coll. 679, in the repository in 2005.

Other Finding Aids

The visual materials that form part of this collection are described and indexed in A Guide to the Zygmunt William Birnbaum Photograph Collection.


Inventory

  
Box/FolderDate
Personal Papers
1/1-2Biographical Features1939-1987
Box
Misc. Oversize 6Biographical Features    OVERSIZE1939-1987
General Correspondence
Box/Folder
1/3-5Altbach, Jozia1937-1940
1/6American Consuls1937-1946
1/7American Consuls, Re: Birnbaum, Franzciska (Nusia) 1938-1941
1/8American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee1943-1947
1/9American Mathematical Society1937-1939
1/10Austein, Rose1937-1940
1/11Berger, Adolf1938-1939
1/12Berger, Bronio1938-1939
1/14-43Berger, Jacob and Berger, Rita1936-1963, n.d.
1/44Berger, Rosa1937-1938
1/45Berger, Oswalt1937-1940
1/46Berger, Sol1938
1/46Berger, Vivian1963, 1976
1/47-48Bergmann, Gustav1938-1939
1/49Bernstein, Felix1937-1940
1/50Bernstein, Marianne1940-1949, 1979
1/51-56, 2/1-7Birnbaum Family (Lwów)1937-1942
Scope and Content: Includes correspondence with his father, Ignacy, his mother, Lina, and his sister, Franzciska (Nusia) Birnbaum.
2/8Birnbaum, Hilde1950-1957
2/9Birnbaum, Ann and Dick1959, 1965
2/10-16Bloch, Maurycy1939-1947
2/17B'nai B'rith1936-1940
2/18-22Bories, Rosa1937-1940
2/23Both, Alfred and Benno1938-1939
2/24Broch, Hermann1939
2/25Carpenter, A. F.1939-1947
2/26Corn Exchange Bank Trust Company1937-1941
2/27Courant, Richard1937
2/28Drucker, Peter and Doris1938-1941
2/29Fraenkel, Abraham Adolf1946-1951
2/30Fürth, Robert1938
2/31Glueck, Fredrick1939
2/32Gottfried, Louis and Markus1938-1940
2/33Hamilton, Robin1996
2/34Hewitt, Edwin1951-1994
2/35Hotelling, Harold1943-1947
2/36Hunter, Patti1996
2/37Hurst, John W.1945-1946
2/38Immerdauer, Bruno1937-1940
2/39Independent Citizens Comittee of Arts, Services and Professions1946
2/40International House1937-1938
2/41Isserman, Alexander1939-1941
2/42Kac, Mark1939-1947
2/43Kaufmann, Esther1938
2/44Kern, Leona1937
2/45Lange, Oskar1940
2/46-48Lederer, Walther and Ruth K.1937-1939, n.d.
2/49Lewin, Gerhard1938-1940
2/50-57Lomnicki, Z. A. ( Zbigniew Alexander)1951-1980
2/58Lukacs, Eugene1938-1940
2/59-71, 3/1-2Manelska, Ala1937-1967
Scope and Content: Early correspondence from Ala Manelska (Ehrlich) was often jointly written with Jozia Altbach and Wisio Sternbach.
3/3Mayer, Walther1937-1939
3/4National Council of Jewish Women, New York Section1938
3/5National Refugee Service1941
3/6Neugebauer, O.1937-1941
3/7Neyman, Jerzy1939-1949
3/8Ostrow, Esther1938
3/9Reich, Marian1939-1947
3/10Reschovsky, Helene1938-1940
3/11-12Rubel, Ludwik1937-1951
3/13Rublowa, Maryla1963-1970
3/14-23Schaerf, Henry M.1937-1979
3/24Scheib, Klara1937-1939
3/25Selzer, Jadwiga1938-1940
3/26Southern Teachers Agency1938
3/27-28Steinhaus, Hugo1937-1946
3/29Sternbach, Ludwig (Wisio)1937-1939
3/30Strich, Arthur1937-1941
3/31Tague, Jean1969-1970
3/32Taub, Abraham Haskell1945
3/33Teachers, American Federation of, Local #4011945
3/34Tillesowa, Irena1940-1941
3/35Warshawski, Stefan1937-1939
3/36Weindling, Izak 1946-1949
3/37Weyl, Hermann1946
3/38Wilks, Samuel Stanley1959-1962
3/39-40Woyczynski, W. A. (Wojbor Andrzej)1996-1998
3/41-73, 4/1-5Miscellaneous A-Zca. 1930s-1990s
4/6-10Unidentified (Polish language)1937-1941, n.d.
4/11Unidentified (English language)1938-1946, n.d.
4/12Unidentified (German language)1937-1943, n.d.
General Correspondence Regarding:
4/13Birnbaum children1958-1959
4/14-15Dried eggs1939
4/16-26Job search1938-1939
4/27Christopher Kasparek's book about Wladyslaw Kozaczuk1982
4/28 Lwów home, legal claims, Jakob Berger, and Izak Weindling1946-1954
4/29National Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel1942-1943
4/30Passports for family1940-1941
4/31-36Steinhaus invention1938
4/37-39U.S. Naval Ordinance Test Station, lecture and possible employment1950-1951
4/40-41U.S. Navy contracts1948-1966
4/42Visas for family1938
4/43Interdepartmental Correspondence, UW1941-1949, n.d.
Diaries
4/44-46Diaries (Polish language)1920-1935
4/47-48Diaries (translated by Birnbaum into English)1920-1938
Speeches and Writings
Personal
4/49-52, 5/1-2Autobiographical short storiesca. 1990s
5/3"Mathemeticians I Have Known" notes1990
5/4Synopses of correspondence with Ala Manelska and Jozia Altbach, 1938-1939 (in English)n.d.
5/5"Dr. 'A' "ca. 1930s
Academic
5/6Homework for English course1939
5/7Math paper (French language)1960
5/8Statistical analysis of value operations1979
5/9"The Statistical Profession," and "Elementary Concepts of Statistics" (talks)1953-1954
Reprints
5/10Quelques remarques sur l'intégrale de Cauchy1928
5/11Beiträge zur Theorie der schlichten Funktionen (Studia)1928
5/12Über shlichte Funktionen (Soc. Sav. de Lwów)1928
5/13Über Approximation im Mittel (Studia)1930
5/14Über Approximation im Mittel ( Gott. Nachr.)1930
5/15Abschätzung der Eigenwerte...1930
5/16Über die Verallgemeinerung des Begriffes der zueinander konjugierten Potenzen1931
5/17Bemerkung zum stärken Gesetz der groben Zahlen1933
5/18Is or Is Not Cancer Dependent on Age?1939
5/19On the Properties of a Collective1940
5/20An Inequality for Mill's Ratio1942
5/21An Inequality Due to H. Hornich1944
5/22Generalization of Tshebyshev's Inequality to Two Dimensions1947
5/23On Random Variables with Comparable Peakedness1948
5/24On the Determination of the Dependence of a Disease, Esp. Cancer, on Age1948
5/25A Graphical Determination of Sample Size for Wilk's Tolerance Limits1949
5/26On Sums of Symetrically Truncated Normal Random Variable1949
5/27On the Distribution of Kolmogorov's Statistic for Finite Sample Size1949
5/28Bias Due to Non-availability in Sampling Surveys1950
5/29On the Effect of Selection Performed on Some Coordinates of a Multi-dimensional Population1950
5/30Effect of Linear Truncation on a Multi-normal Population1950
5/31On the Total Error Due to Non-interview and Random Sampling1950
5/32On Optimum Selections from Multi-normal Populations1950
5/33On the Effect of the Cutting Score When Selection Is Performed against a Dichotomized Criterion1950
5/34One-sided Confidence Contours for Probability Distribution Functions1951
5/35Numerical Tabulation of the Distribution of Kolmogorov's Statistic for Sample Size1952
5/36Distribution-free Tests of Fit for Continuous Distribution Functions1953
5/37On the Power of a One-sided test for Continuous Probability Functions1953
5/38On the Effect of Truncation in Some or All Coordinates of a Multi-normal Population1953
5/39On Distribution-free Statistics1954
5/40On the Use of the Mann-Whitney Statistic1954-1955
5/41Bounds for the Variance of the Mann-Whitney Statistic1957
5/42On Some Distributions Related to the Statistic D+n1958
5/43A Statistical Model for Life-length of Materials1958
5/44A Distribution-free Upper Confidence Bound for Pr{y<x}, Based on Independant Samples of x and y1958
5/45An Inequality Due to S. Gatti1958
5/46Life-length of Materials as a Stochastic Process1958
5/47Life-length and Failure of Materials Interpreted as Stochastic Process1960
5/48Small-sample Distribution for Multi-sample Statistics of the Smirnov Type1960
5/49Multi-component Systems and Structures and Their Reliability1961
5/50Some Multivariate Chebyshev Inequalities with Extensions to Continuous Parameter Processes1961
5/51On the Probabalistic Theory of Complex Structures1961
5/52Models of Coherent Binary Systems1964
5/53Two Simple Distribution-free Tests of Goodness and Fit1964
5/54Design of Sample Surveys to Estimate the Prevalance of Rare Diseases1965
5/55Some Inequalities for Reliability Functions1965
5/56A Stochastic Characterization of Wear-out for Components and Systems1966
5/57Some Concepts and Problems of a Mathematical Theory of Reliability1966
5/58A Survey of Recent Results on Reliability of Structures1966
5/59A Probabilistic Interpretation of Miner's Rule1968
5/60On the Importance of Different Components in a Multi-component System1969
5/61Exact Distributions for Some Renyi-type Statistics1969
5/62Tables of Critical Values of Some Renyi-type Statistics for Finite Sample Sizes1969
5/63A New Family of Life Distributions1969
5/64Estimation for a Family of Life Distributions with Applications to Fatigue1969
5/65On a Statistic Similar to Student's t1970
5/66Asymptotically Distribution-free Statistics Similar to Student's t1970
5/67Limiting Distributions of Statistics Similar to Student's t1973
5/68Computers and Unconventional Test Statistics1974
5/69Numerical Tabulations for a Statistic Similar to Student's t1974
5/70Testing for Intervals of Increased Mortality1975
5/71Origin and Fundamental Concepts of Competing Risks1978
5/72On the Mathematics of Competing Risks1979
5/73Variability and Biases of Infant Mortality Rates1981
5/74The Making of Statisticians1982
5/75Inference, Design-based vs. Model-based1983
5/76Discussion of Article by Lawless1983
5/77Review of Enigmas of Chance, an Autobiography, by Mark Kac1987
Speeches and Writings of Others
5/78"A Conversation with Z. William Birnbaum," Albert W. Marshall1990
5/79 Ein Privatbankhaus in Seinem Wirtschaftsraum 1957
5/80"Hugo Steinhaus - A Reminiscence and a Tribute," by Mark Kac1974
5/81Marxist Biology Curriculum1940
5/82Review, by R. Easterling, of "On the Mathematics of Competing Risks," by Z.W. Birnbaum1980
5/83-84"Szukajac Birnbauma" ("Seeking Birnbaum"), by Wojbor Woyczynski1998
5/85Miscellaneous1963-1992
Notebooks
5/86Notes, Anecdotes, and Information about Diaries1938, 1988-1999, n.d.
5/87-89Math Notes1923-1937
Case Files
5/90-92Billboard Case, Washington State1966-1968
6/1-8Billboard Case, Worcester County, Maryland1976
6/9-14Loyalty Oath Case1962-1967
6/15Address Books1930s-1960s
6/16-17Appointment Calendars1980-1981, 1988-2000
6/18-20Financial Documents1937-1940
Legal Documents
6/21Last Will and Testament1939
6/22-23Identification Documents1930s-1990s
6/24Academic Records1928
Box
Misc. Oversize 6Diplomas    OVERSIZE
Subject Series
Box/Folder
6/2580th birthday1983
6/2695th birthday1998
6/27Faculty position appointment1940-1973
6/28"Panem + Circencens"1999
6/29PKO (Pekao) Trading Corporation1957-1962
7/1-2Retirement1974
7/3Travel documents1937
7/4Typewriter testn.d.
7/5-6Universal Life Church ministry, wedding services1974-1989
7/7-8Washington Committee on Academic Freedom (opposition to the Canwell Committee)1947-1948
Agenda
7/9U.W. Faculty Senate1967
Report
7/10U.W. Committee on Departmental Democracyn.d.
Awards
7/11Wilks Award medal1985
7/12Announcements1950
7/13Certificates1921-1942, 1976
Newsletters
7/14 Amstat News 1984
Photographs
8/1Photocopies of transferred photos1950-1991, n.d.
8/2Programs1947
8/3Clippings1948-1994
8/4Miscellany1939-1950

  
Box/FolderDate
Hilde Merzbach Birnbaum Papers1933-1950
Historical Note : Hilde Merzbach Birnbaum (b. Feb. 2, 1909, d. Aug. 12, 2003) grew up and studied law in Frankfurt, Germany. She was in London in the summer of 1931 on an internship in a solicitor's office, when the Nazi party won control of the German Reichstag. Despite misgivings, she returned to Germany after the internship at the insistence of her family. While serving as an intern in a German court she recognized that, as a woman and a Jew, she would never be able to practice law in Germany. She emigrated to London with her sister on March 31, 1933, on the eve of the Anti-Jewish Boycott. Her parents eventually realized the need to leave Germany and joined Hilde's sister in Seattle. As pre-war tensions were rising in London in 1939, Hilde was offered a position as director of her employer's Brazilian subsidiary but decided to join her family in Seattle instead. In 1940 Hilde married Z.W. Birnbaum. She obtained a master's degree in economics from the University of Washington and became a teaching assistant with prospects for a full time position. After she was notified that the university's nepotism rules prohibited her and her husband from holding positions at the university at the same time, however, Mrs. Birnbaum taught at Seattle area community colleges and became the chairwoman of the economics department at Bellevue Community College.
Scope and Content: The bulk of the Hilde Merzbach Birnbaum subgroup consists of her correspondence (in German) prior to meeting Z.W. Birnbaum. There are also a few short essays, and material related to a legal conference.
General Correspondence
8/5-6Bauer, Lothar1937-1939
8/7Feuchtwanger, Alfred1936-1937
8/8von Leithner, Baron Otto1937-1938
8/9Lindemann, Max1934-1938
8/10 Merzbach, Richard1940-1943
8/11-12Steger, A.1937-1938
8/13University of Washington1949
8/14-16Miscellaneous1933-1938
8/17Unidentified1935, 1938
Writings
8/18"Is There a Secret to Hitler's Success?"1938-1939
8/18"Entering a New World"1938-1939
8/18"Victoria, B.C."1938-1939
8/19Financial Records1937
Subject Series
8/20Law Papers and International Law Conference1938
8/21Miscellaneous1937-1938, 1948-1950

  
Box/FolderDate
UW Senate, Committee to Study Annuities and Retirement
8/22General Correspondence1940, 1947

  
Box/FolderDate
Institute of Mathematical and Statistical Research
8/23Outgoing Correspondence1938

  
Box/FolderDate
Institute of Mathematical Statistics
8/24Miscellany1943-1968
Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Advisory Committee on Physical Facilities for Meetings
8/25-27General Correspondence1955-1970
Scope and Content: Correspondents include Leo Katz, George Nicholson, and David L. Wallace.

  
Box/FolderDate
American Association of University Professors, UW Chapter
8/28General Correspondence1946
8/28Bulletins1944-1946
8/28Reports1946

Subject Terms

Personal Names:
Altbach, Jozia.
Bauer, Lothar.
Berger, Jacob, 1908-
Berger, Rita, 1912-
Bernstein, Felix, 1878-1956.
Birnbaum, Franciszka.
Birnbaum, Hilde Merzbach, creator.
Birnbaum, Hilde Merzbach--Archives.
Birnbaum, Ignacy.
Birnbaum, Lina.
Birnbaum, Zygmunt William, 1903- --Archives.
Bloch, Maurycy.
Bories, Rosa.
Hotelling, Harold, 1895-
Isserman, Alexander.
Katz, Leo.
Lederer, Ruth K.
Lindemann, Max.
Lomnicki, Z. A. (Zbigniew Alexander), 1904-
Manelska, Ala.
Neyman, Jerzy, 1894-
Rubel, Ludwik.
Schaerf, Henry M., 1907-
Steinhaus, Hugo, 1887-1972.
Woyczýnski, W. A. (Wojbor Andrzej), 1943-
Organizations:
Institute of Mathematical Statistics.
University of Washington. University Archives.
Geographic Names:
Washington (State)--Emigration and immigration.
Subjects:
Jewish college teachers--Washington (State)--Seattle--Archives.
Jews--Washington (State)--Seattle--Archives.
Loyalty oaths--Washington (State)--Seattle.
Mathematical statistics--Washington (State)--Seattle.
Mathematicians--Washington (State)--Seattle--Archives.
Mathematics teachers--Washington (State)--Seattle--Archives.
Mathematics--Study and teaching (Higher)--Washington (State)--Seattle.
Refugees, Jewish--United States.
Statisticians--Washington (State)--Seattle--Archives.
World War, 1939-1945--Jews--Europe.
World War, 1939-1945--Jews--Rescue.
Genre Headings:
Diaries.
Last modified: July 27, 2005
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