Single vs. Multiple Records for Remotely Accessed Electronic Monographs

A CPC Discussion Paper

April 1998

At the October 1997 meeting of CPC, a group was appointed to look into the issue of how to treat monographic titles appearing in a remotely accessed electronic form and in at least one other form. The group was chaired by Adam L. Schiff (Principal Cataloger) and consisted of Helene Williams (Reference), Kathryn Womble (Maps), and Cassandra Hartnett (Government Publications). This report contains the group's findings and recommendations.

Serials at UW are now being cataloged using a one-record approach sanctioned by CONSER, in which some information about the electronic version is added to the bibliographic record for the paper (or other) version. For monographs, current practice is to enter a new record for each format under bibliographic control.

At the same time as our task group was meeting, the Library of Congress issued a document entitled Draft Interim Guidelines for Cataloging Electronic Resources (http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/dcmb19_4.html), which outlined LC's policies on this issue. The group was able to include consideration of the LC Guidelines in its deliberations. Indeed, because the Library of Congress is an important source of cataloging copy for the UW Libraries, any policies it enacts in this area become de facto policies and national standards for us as well, unless we decide to reconsider our current quick cataloging and copy cataloging workflows. The LC Guidelines describe a "delineation" approach for remote electronic manifestations of monographs and serials which will be applied in some instances instead of a separate records approach.

The LC Guidelines provide a "set of conventions for bibliographic control that will enable generalized, standard practice to the extent judged practicable in a diverse, dynamic environment." The guidelines include:

  1. policies on when to use multiple records and when to use a single record
  2. conventions developed especially for the single-record technique
  3. directions for indicating the existence of other physical formats (530 field)
  4. directions related to electronic location (856 field)
  5. directions related to collocating records (740 field) and linking them (76X-78X fields)

Basic concepts and terms that are particularly important in this discussion include the following, taken chiefly from the LC Guidelines:

work: a distinct intellectual or artistic creation; a work is an abstract entity

expression: the intellectual or artistic realization of a work in the form of alpha-numeric, musical, or choreographic notation, sound, image, object, movement, etc., or combination of such forms; an expression is the specific intellectual or artistic form that a work takes each time it is "realized"; inasmuch as the form of expression is an inherent characteristic of the expression, any change in form (e.g., from alpha-numeric notation to spoken word) results in a new expression; similarly, changes in the intellectual conventions or instruments that are employed to express a work (e.g., translation from one language to another) result in the production of a new expression

manifestation: the physical embodiment of an expression of a work; as an entity, manifestation represents all the physical objects that bear the same characteristics, in respect to both intellectual content and physical form; when a work is realized, the resulting expression of the work may be physically embodied on or in a medium such as paper, audio tape, video tape, etc.; the physical embodiment constitutes a manifestation of the work; in some cases there may be only a single physical exemplar produced of that manifestation of the work (e.g., an author's manuscript, a tape recorded for an oral history archive, an original oil painting, etc.); in other cases there are multiple copies produced in order to facilitate public dissemination or distribution

tangible resource: something with a physical carrier that can be put on a shelf; e.g. books, printed maps, videocassettes, CD-ROMs; a tangible resource may be accessed in an online mode as if remote (e.g. networked CD-ROMs)

electronic resource: a manifestation of a work encoded for manipulation by computer. The manifestation resides in a carrier accessed either directly or remotely. "Electronic" resources that do not require the use of a computer, e.g. music compact discs, videodiscs, are not included under this definition.

direct access electronic resource: electronic resource resident in a carrier such as a computer disk or a CD-ROM that a user physically inserts into a computer, typically a microcomputer; a tangible electronic resource

remote access electronic resource: electronic resource resident in a carrier that a user cannot physically handle, i.e., a resource accessed, processed, executed, etc. remotely. Frequently this involves connection through a computer network. This type of access if often referred to as "online" access.

delineation: a technique used in lieu of separately cataloging a manifestation whereby detailed information about that manifestation is given in the bibliographic record for another manifestation; simply noting the existence of another manifestation does not constitute what is meant by delineation

The Library of Congress has announced that in the case of multiple manifestations involving electronic resources it will apply the following:

  1. Directly accessed manifestations of a work will be cataloged using a multiple-record approach (each manifestation will have a separate catalog record)
  2. Remotely accessed manifestations that are one-to-one electronic reproductions of another item will be delineated on the record for the original item (a one-record approach). The original item could be an LC collection, a book, map, microform, CD-ROM, etc.
  3. Other remotely accessed manifestations, including works with no tangible counterpart and original compilations will be cataloged on their own separate bibliographic records.

The CPC subgroup identified four different cases of multiple manifestations involving a remote electronic resource and a manifestation in at least one physical (tangible) form for consideration of treatment possibilities:

  1. We own a title in a tangible form and there is one-to-one correspondence in content between it and a remotely accessed electronic version.
  2. We don't own a tangible version but a remotely accessed version with one-to-one content has been selected for cataloging.
  3. We have cataloged a remote electronic resource and we later acquire a tangible version of that same work; one-to-one correspondence of content.
  4. There is not a one-to-one correspondence in content between a tangible resource and its electronic manifestation, e.g. not just an electronic reproduction of a print resource. The cataloger judges that there is substantial difference between the two resources, e.g. one is derived from, or based on the other, but they aren't the same work anymore.

In looking at each of these cases we tried to consider the needs for bibliographic control over materials in different formats as well as users' needs and expectations. Users include library staff needing clear identification of materials owned by or accessible to the University Libraries (e.g. selectors, reference, interlibrary lending, acquisitions), university students, staff, and faculty, and both local and remote non-affiliated users.

We did not try to define what is meant by "one-to-one correspondence". We feel that the determination of this should be left to individual catalogers, and that when in doubt, a separate bibliographic record for a remote electronic resource should be created. The University of California's Task Force on Electronic Resources recently issued a report on cataloging of electronic resources (http://tpot.ucsd.edu/Cataloging/HotsElectronic/tfer.htm). Among its recommendations is to "use a single record approach whenever the electronic resource would serve as a suitable substitute for most users."

    We have learned through the MELVYL fulltext project in the A&I databases that very few electronic resources offering fulltext content are truly identical to their print counterparts. It is common for publishers to omit materials such as letters to the editor, advertisements, news items, etc., when the publication is mounted online. Web-based publications commonly vary in other ways: frequency of updates, continuous addition of articles, interactive features, different graphics, etc. While some variations are easily observed, others may be difficult or impossible to identify with certainty. This situation has bedeviled catalogers as they have begun to work with electronic resources.

    Nevertheless, it is usually possible to determine whether the electronic publication provides the same general scholarly content even when a one-to-one correspondence of every article cannot be proved. When this appears to be the case, we suggest that UC catalogers be guided by the principle of considering the print and electronic versions equivalent enough to use a single record if the electronic publication would serve as a reasonable substitute for most users. If a cataloger determines that the scholarly content is significantly different, separate records should be used.

We recommend that the University of Washington Libraries generally follow the policies set out in LC's Draft Interim Guidelines for Cataloging Electronic Resources. Specifically, we recommend the following for the four cases we outlined above:

A. We own a title in a tangible form and there is one-to-one correspondence in content between it and a remotely accessed electronic version.

Use a one-record approach, adding delineation of the electronic manifestation to the record for the tangible resource.

B. We don't own a tangible version but a remotely accessed version with one-to-one content has been selected for cataloging.

Create a separate record for the remote electronic manifestation. ILL/resource sharing issues would strongly preclude us from adding our holdings to an OCLC record for the tangible resource that we don't own. Users of our catalogs would likely be misled if we used a record for a print or other tangible resource, since most of the descriptive cataloging in a one-record approach would be describing something we did not own. We believe that whenever possible our holdings of a resource, whether print or electronic, should be indicated in OCLC; although it would be possible to export a record from OCLC to our local system without attaching our symbol to the OCLC record and then modify that local record to include information about the remote resource, we are not in favor of cataloging remote resources in this manner.

C. We have cataloged a remote electronic resource and we later acquire a tangible version of that same work; one-to-one correspondence of content.

There are three possible approaches in this case:

  1. Catalog the tangible resource on a separate bibliographic record and leave the record for the remote resource alone, i.e. two separate bib. records.
  2. Use the delineation method to add information about the tangible manifestation to the record for the remote resource.
  3. Catalog the tangible resource and use the delineation method to add information about the remote electronic manifestation; delete the separate record for the remote resource from the catalog.

ILL/resource sharing issues again argue against option 2 since an OCLC library would not be able to tell if we actually owned the tangible item delineated on the record for the electronic manifestation. We recommend that whenever practicable option 3 be applied, although because of quick cataloging workflows we should accept two separate records in our catalog (option 1). We do not recommend that quick cataloging staff search to see if an electronic manifestation of each item received for cataloging is remotely available.

D. There is not a one-to-one correspondence in content between a tangible resource and its electronic manifestation, e.g. not just an electronic reproduction of a print resource. The cataloger judges that there is substantial difference between the two resources, e.g. one is derived from, or based on the other, but they aren't the same work anymore.

Use separate bibliographic records for the resources, and link them together by means of added entries.

The Delineation Method for Monographs

The LC Draft Interim Guidelines for Cataloging Electronic Resources describe the specific means of delineating a remote electronic manifestation of a monograph on a bibliographic record for the tangible manifestation. The most important features include:

It is important to note that by using a one-record approach, some bibliographic details are lost that would be present on a separate records. If the cataloger judges that important bibliographic details would be lost (e.g. series statements or other access points relevant to only the remote resource) a separate record should be created even though there may be one-to-one content.

The examples that follow show what the delineation technique would look like in our current systems and provide specific examples that correspond to the four cases discussed above. The first example illustrates current practice to create separate bibliographic records.

Current policy of multiple records for multiple manifestations

Title: Western wetland flora : field office guide to plant species.
Pub. Info.: Portland, Ore. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil
Conservation Service, West National Technical Center, [1993].
Phy Descript: 11, [578] p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 29 cm.
Notes: Cover title.
Shipping list no.: 93-0133-P.
LC Subject: Wetland-plants -- West-US -- Identification.
Botany -- West-US.
Other Author: United States. Soil Conservation Service. West National
Technical Center.
Other Title: Field office guide to plant species.
Gov Doc Numb: Supt. of Docs. no.: A 57.6/2:F 66.
Status: Government Pub Stacks US
A 57.6/2:F 66


Title: Western wetland flora [computer file] : field office guide to
plant species.
Edition: Version 17JAN97.
Pub. Info.: Jamestown, ND : Northern Prairie Science Center, [1997].
Notes: Computer data.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from title screen.
"This field guide was prepared by Biotic Consultants,
Incorporated, of Carbondale, Illinois, under Contract
#54-0484-1-20. All descriptions have been written by Robert
H. Mohlenbrock. Mark Mohlenbrock prepared all of the
illustrations. All maps were prepared by Trent
Mohlenbrock"--Credits screen.
Originally issued in print: Portland, Or. : U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, West National
Technical Center, 1993-.
Awards: Education Index Top Site.
LC Subject: Wetland-plants -- West-US -- Identification.
Botany -- West-US.
Other Author: Mohlenbrock, Robert H., 1931-.
Biotic Consultants.
United States. Soil Conservation Service. West National
Technical Center.
Northern Prairie Science Center (U.S.).
Status: Available on the Internet
QK133 <Internet>
http://www.npsc.nbs.gov/resource/othrdata/westflor/westflor.htm 

Example A

One-record approach for multiple manifestations.

Title: America's least wanted : alien species invasions of U.S
ecosystems / [editors, Bruce A. Stein and Stephanie R Flack ;
contributing authors, Nancy B. Benton ... et al.].
Pub. Info.: Arlington, Va. : Nature Conservancy, c1996.
Phy Descript: 31 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Notes: Cover title.
"A NatureServe publication.".
Also available electronically via World Wide Web.
Summary: Discusses the threat of non-native plants and
animals to U.S. species and ecosystems. Highlights twelve
alien species (the "dirty dozen"): zebra mussel, purple
loosestrife, flathead catfish, tamarisk, rosy wolfsnail,
leafy spurge, green crab, hydrilla, balsam wooly adelgid,
miconia, Chinese tallow, and brown tree snake.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 27-29).
LC Subject: Non-indigenous-pests -- United-States.
Invasive-plants -- United-States.
Alien-plants -- United-States.
Animal-introduction -- United-States.
Non-indigenous-pests -- Control -- United-States.
Invasive-plants -- Control -- United-States.
Biological-invasions -- United-States.
Other Author: Stein, Bruce A.
Flack, Stephanie R.
Benton, Nancy B.
Nature Conservancy (U.S.).
Other Title: Alien species invasions of U.S. ecosystems.
Status: Available on the Internet
SB990.5.U6 <Internet>
http://www.consci.tnc.org/library/pubs/dd/
Natural Sciences General Stacks
SB990.5.U6 A43 1996 CHECK THE SHELVES



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003 OCoLC
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042 pcc
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050 4 SB990.5.U6|bA43 1996
092 0 577.180973|bAm35|221
245 00 America's least wanted :|balien species invasions of U.S. ecosystems /
|c[editors, Bruce A. Stein and Stephanie R. Flack ; contributing 
authors, Nancy B. Benton ... et al.]
260 Arlington, Va. :|bNature Conservancy,|cc1996
246 30 Alien species invasions of U.S. ecosystems
300 31 p. :|bill., maps ;|c28 cm
500 Cover title
500 "A NatureServe publication."
530 Also available electronically via World Wide Web
520 Discusses the threat of non-native plants and animals to U.S. species
and ecosystems. Highlights twelve alien species (the "dirty dozen"):
zebra mussel, purple loosestrife, flathead catfish, tamarisk, rosy 
wolfsnail, leafy spurge, green crab, hydrilla, balsam wooly adelgid,
miconia, Chinese tallow, and brown tree snake
504 Includes bibliographical references (p. 27-29)
650 0 Non-indigenous pests|zUnited States
650 0 Invasive plants|zUnited States
650 0 Alien plants|zUnited States
650 0 Animal introduction|zUnited States
650 0 Non-indigenous pests|xControl|zUnited States
650 0 Invasive plants|xControl|zUnited States
650 0 Biological invasions|zUnited States
700 1 Stein, Bruce A
700 1 Flack, Stephanie R
700 1 Benton, Nancy B
710 2 Nature Conservancy (U.S.)
856 41 |uhttp://www.tnc.org/science/library/pubs/dd/
941 .b38124002
945 1 SB990.5.U6 A43 1996|lnsstx|b39352046043618
945 1 SB990.5.U6 <Internet>|lelrem
|yhttp://www.tnc.org/science/library/pubs/dd/
____________________________________________________________________________
Summary of Attached Records
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Title: The ten-year Regional Transit System plan.
Pub. Info.: [Seattle, Wash. : Central Puget Sound Regional Transit
Authority, 1996].
Phy Descript: 5 v. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Notes: "As adopted May 31, 1996.".
Consists of the main volume and four appendices, designated
A, B, C, and D, which include details of facilities, costs,
financial policies, benefits, impacts, system use and
performance, and framework for integration with land-use
planning.
Also available electronically via World Wide Web with title:
Sound Move--the ten-year Regional Transit System plan.
LC Subject: Sound-Move-Transit-plan.
Local-transit -- Washington-State --
Seattle-Metropolitan-Area -- Planning.
Urban-transportation -- Washington-State --
Seattle-Metropolitan-Area -- Planning.
Local-transit -- Washington-State -- Puget-Sound-Region --
Planning.
Urban-transportation -- Washington-State --
Puget-Sound-Region -- Planning.
Other Author: Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority (Wash.).
Other Title: Regional Transit System plan.
Sound Move : launching a rapid transit system for the Puget
Sound Region.
Sound Move--the ten-year Regional Transit System plan.
Status: Available on the Internet
HE4491.S62 <Internet> 
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/CPSRTA/plconten.html
Government Pub Stacks
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.1 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.1-5 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.2 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.3 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.4 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.5 CHECK THE SHELVES
Government Pub US Reference
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.1 CHECK THE SHELVES
LIBRARY USE ONLY
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.2 CHECK THE SHELVES
LIBRARY USE ONLY
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.3 CHECK THE SHELVES
LIBRARY USE ONLY
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.4 CHECK THE SHELVES
LIBRARY USE ONLY
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.5 CHECK THE SHELVES
LIBRARY USE ONLY
Suzzallo General Stacks
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.1 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.1-5 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.2 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.3 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.4 CHECK THE SHELVES
HE4491.S62 T46 1996 v.5 CHECK THE SHELVES


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003 OCoLC
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040 MZT|cMZT|dWAU
043 n-us-wa
049 WAUW
090 HE4491.S553|bT4 1996a
245 04 The ten-year Regional Transit System plan
260 [Seattle, Wash. :|bCentral Puget Sound Regional Transit
Authority,|c1996]
246 30 Regional Transit System plan
246 1 |iAt head of title:|aSound Move :|blaunching a rapid transit system for
the Puget Sound Region
300 5 v. :|bill., maps ;|c28 cm
500 "As adopted May 31, 1996."
500 Consists of the main volume and four appendices, designated A, B, C,
and D, which include details of facilities, costs, financial policies,
benefits, impacts, system use and performance, and framework for
integration with land-use planning
530 Also available electronically via World Wide Web with title: Sound
Move--the ten-year Regional Transit System plan
610 20 Sound Move (Transit plan)
650 0 Local transit|zWashington (State)|zSeattle Metropolitan Area|xPlanning
650 0 Urban transportation|zWashington (State)|zSeattle Metropolitan
Area|xPlanning
650 0 Local transit|zWashington (State)|zPuget Sound Region|xPlanning
650 0 Urban transportation|zWashington (State)|zPuget Sound Region|xPlanning
710 2 Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority (Wash.)
740 0 Sound Move--the ten-year Regional Transit System plan
856 41 |uhttp://www.wsdot.wa.gov/CPSRTA/plconten.html
945 1 HE4491.S62 <Internet>|lelrem
|yhttp://www.wsdot.wa.gov/CPSRTA/plconten.html
____________________________________________________________________________
Summary of Attached Records
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ITEM 20 > L: elrem; CALL #=HE4491.S62 <Internet>

Example B

UW Libraries does not own the original print manifestation.

Author: Ashton, Diane E.
Title: Fragile legacy [computer file] : endangered, threatened, & rare
animals of South Dakota / written by Diane E. Ashton and Eileen
M. Dowd.
Pub. Info.: [Jamestown, N.D.] : Northern Prairie Science Center, [1995?-.
Notes: Computer data.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from title screen.
Published by: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center,
1997-.
Originally published in print; Pierre, SD : South Dakota
Dept. of Game, Fish & Parks, Wildlife Division, c1991
(Report (South Dakota. Division of Wildlife) ; no. 91-04).
Includes bibliographical references.
LC Subject: Endangered-species -- South-Dakota.
Rare-animals -- South-Dakota.
Wildlife-conservation -- South-Dakota.
Other Sub.: Computer-network-resources.
Other Author: Dowd, Eileen M.
South Dakota. Division of Wildlife.
Northern Prairie Science Center (U.S.).
Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center.
Other Title: Endangered, threatened, & rare animals of South Dakota.
Endangered, threatened, and rare animals of South Dakota.
Status: Available on the Internet
QL84.22.S8 <Internet>
http://www.npsc.nbs.gov/resource/distr/others/sdrare/sdrare.htm 


Title: Crocodilian, tuatara, and turtle species of the world [computer
file] : an online taxonomic and geographic reference / edited by
F. Wayne King and Russell L. Burke.
Edition: World Wide Web ed.
Pub. Info.: Washington, D.C. : Association of Systematics Collections,
c1997.
Notes: Computer data and programs.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from title screen.
Originally issued in print in 1989.
Includes bibliographical references and searchable index of
taxonomic and common names.
LC Subject: Turtles.
Crocodilians.
Tuatara.
Other Author: King, F. Wayne.
Burke, Russell L.
Association of Systematics Collections.
Status: Available on the Internet
QL666.C5 <Internet>
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herpetology/turtcroclist/

Example C

A remote resource cataloged first. Later a print version of the remote resource was published. Print publication has parallel title and series not included on original remote publication. Records could be merged into one if cataloger of the print publication so decided.

Title: International directory of art libraries [computer file] / IFLA,
Section of Art Libraries ; Thomas E. Hill, general editor.
Pub. Info.: [Poughkeepsie, N.Y.] : Vassar College Libraries, [1997?-.
Notes: Computer data and program.
Type of file: Searchable database.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from title screen.
Summary: Nearly 3,000 libraries and library departments
with specialized holdings in art, architecture, and
archaeology throughout the world are listed. Data recorded
for each institution includes address, telephone and
tele-facsimile numbers, hours of operation, annual
closings, and listings of professional personnel. It also
includes electronic mail addresses of individual librarians
and direct web links to institutional home pages.
LC Subject: Art-libraries -- Directories.
Other Author: Hill, Thomas E. (Thomas Edward), 1952-.
International Federation of Libraries Association. Section
of Art Libraries.
Vassar College. Library.
Other Title: IFLA Section of Art Libraries international directory of
art libraries.
Status: Available on the Internet
Z675.A85 <Internet> http://iberia.vassar.edu/ifla-idal/



Author: Hill, Thomas E. (Thomas Edward), 1952-.
Title: International directory of art libraries = Repertoire
international de bibliotheques d'art / compiled and edited for
the International Federation of Library Associations and
Institutions, Section of Art Libraries by Thomas E. Hill.
Pub. Info.: Munchen : K.G. Saur, 1997.
Phy Descript: xiii, 251 p. ; 22 cm.
Notes: Also available electronically via World Wide Web.
Includes indexes.
LC Subject: Art-libraries -- Directories.
Other Author: International Federation of Library Associations and
Institutions. Section of Art Libraries.
Other Title: Repertoire international de bibliotheques d'art.
Series Info.: IFLA publications, 82.
Status: Art Reference
Z675.A85 H579 1997 CHECK THE SHELVES LIBRARY USE ONLY

Example D

Two-record approach. One-to-one correspondence lacking.

Title: Buddhism and human rights / edited by Damien V. Keown, Charles
S. Prebish, Wayne R. Husted.
Pub. Info.: Richmond, Surrey : Curzon, 1998.
Phy Descript: xxi, 239 p. ; 24 cm.
Notes: Contains the papers, introductory material, and
bibliography from the first online conference sponsored by
the Journal of Buddhist ethics from 1-13 October 1995.
Also available electronically on the web site for the
Journal's On-line conferences.
Includes bibliographical references (p. [223]-235).
LC Subject: Human-rights -- Religious-aspects -- Buddhism -- Congresses.
Buddhism-and-politics -- Congresses.
Other Author: Keown, Damien, 1951-.
Prebish, Charles S.
Husted, Wayne Rollen.
Other Title: On-line conferences.
Journal of Buddhist ethics.
Series Info.: Curzon critical studies in Buddhism.
Status: Suzzallo General Stacks
BQ4570.H79 B838 1998 CHECK THE SHELVES



020 0700709541
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003 OCoLC
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040 WAU|cWAU
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245 00 Buddhism and human rights /|cedited by Damien V. Keown, Charles S.
Prebish, Wayne R. Husted
260 Richmond, Surrey :|bCurzon,|c1998
300 xxi, 239 p. ;|c24 cm
440 0 Curzon critical studies in Buddhism
500 Contains the papers, introductory material, and bibliography from the
first online conference sponsored by the Journal of Buddhist ethics
from 1-13 October 1995
530 Also available electronically on the web site for the Journal's On-line
conferences.
504 Includes bibliographical references (p. [223]-235)
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650 0 Buddhism and politics|xCongresses
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700 1 Prebish, Charles S
700 1 Husted, Wayne Rollen
730 0 On-line conferences
730 0 Journal of Buddhist ethics
776 1 |tOn-line conferences|w(OCoLC)38248211
856 42 |uhttp://jbe.la.psu.edu/confer2.html
856 42 |3Mirror site|uhttp://www.gold.ac.uk/jbe/confer2.html
____________________________________________________________________________
Summary of Attached Records
ORDER 1 > L: szstx; FUND: 3soum; STATUS: a
ITEM 2 > L: szstx; CALL #=BQ4570.H79 B838 1998; B=39352047644091
____________________________________________________________________________ 



Title: On-line conferences [computer file] / sponsored by the Journal
of Buddhist Ethics.
Pub. Info.: University Park, PA : [s.n.], 1995?-.
Notes: Computer data.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from title screen.
1995 conference papers also available in a print edition:
Buddhism and human rights.
Contents: Incomplete contents: On-line Conference on "Buddhism and
Human Rights," 1-14 October 1995.
LC Subject: Buddhism -- Congresses.
Other Title: Buddhism and human rights.
Journal of Buddhist ethics.
On-line Conference on "Buddhism and Human Rights".
Status: Available on the Internet
BQ100 <Internet> http://jbe.la.psu.edu/confer2.html




001 38248211
003 OCoLC
005 19980126193209.0
007 crumn-
008 980122m19959999pau d eng dcmmIa
040 WAU|cWAU
049 WAUW
090 BQ100|b.O5 1995
245 00 On-line conferences|h[computer file] /|csponsored by the Journal of
Buddhist Ethics
260 University Park, PA :|b[s.n.],|c1995?-
256 Computer data
538 Mode of access: World Wide Web
500 Title from title screen
530 1995 conference papers also available in a print edition: Buddhism and
human rights
505 1 On-line Conference on "Buddhism and Human Rights," 1-14 October 1995
650 0 Buddhism|xCongresses
740 02 On-line Conference on "Buddhism and Human Rights"
730 0 Buddhism and human rights
730 0 Journal of Buddhist ethics
856 40 |uhttp://jbe.la.psu.edu/confer2.html
856 40 |3Mirror site|uhttp://www.gold.ac.uk/jbe/confer2.html 

I56901793 Last updated: 01-23-98 Created: 01-23-98 Revision: 1
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25 945 1 BQ100 <Internet>
26 PUB NOTE http://jbe.la.psu.edu/confer2.html 


Title: Protected areas information [computer file].
Pub. Info.: Cambridge, U.K. : World Conservation Monitoring Centre,
[1997?-.
Notes: Computer data and programs.
Type of file: Searchable database.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from title screen.
"These data were compiled by the WCMC Protected Areas
Programme.".
Issued in part in print as: Protected areas of the world :
a review of national systems. Gland, Switzerland : IUCN,
c1991-c1992; and in part as latest ed. of: United Nations
list of national parks and protected areas.
Email: info@wcmc.org.uk.
Includes bibliographical references.
LC Subject: Natural-areas -- Databases.
National-parks-and-reserves -- Databases.
Parks -- Databases.
Wildlife-refuges -- Databases.
Other Sub.: Computer-network-resources.
Other Author: World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
WCMC Protected Areas Programme.
Other Title: Protected areas of the world.
United Nations list of national parks and equivalent reserves.
United Nations list of national parks and protected areas.
Status: Available on the Internet
QH75 <Internet>
http://www.wcmc.org.uk/data/database/un%5Fcombo.html 


001 36838059
003 OCoLC
005 19970501230133.0
007 crumn-
008 970501m1997uuuuenk d eng dnmmIa
040 WAU|cWAU
090 QH75|b.P756 1997
245 00 Protected areas information|h[computer file]
260 Cambridge, U.K. :|bWorld Conservation Monitoring Centre,|c[1997?-
256 Computer data and programs
516 Searchable database
538 Mode of access: World Wide Web
500 Title from title screen
500 "These data were compiled by the WCMC Protected Areas Programme."
530 Issued in part in print as: Protected areas of the world : a review of
national systems. Gland, Switzerland : IUCN, c1991-c1992; and in part
as latest ed. of: United Nations list of national parks and protected
areas
500 Email: info@wcmc.org.uk
504 Includes bibliographical references
650 0 Natural areas|xDatabases
650 0 National parks and reserves|xDatabases
650 0 Parks|xDatabases
650 0 Wildlife refuges|xDatabases
655 7 Computer network resources.|2local
710 2 World Conservation Monitoring Centre
710 2 WCMC Protected Areas Programme
730 0 Protected areas of the world
730 0 United Nations list of national parks and equivalent reserves
740 0 United Nations list of national parks and protected areas
776 1 |tProtected areas of the world|w(DLC) 93196949|w(OCoLC)27471629
776 1 |tUnited Nations list of national parks and equivalent reserves|w(DLC)
77640295|w(OCoLC)1611314
856 40 |uhttp://www.wcmc.org.uk/data/database/un%5Fcombo.html
941 .b38000301
945 1 QH75 <Internet>|lelrem
|yhttp://www.wcmc.org.uk/data/database/un%5Fcombo.html
Title: Protected areas of the world : a review of national systems /
compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre in
collaboration with the IUCN Commission on National Parks and
Protected Areas.
Pub. Info.: Gland, Switzerland : IUCN, 1991-1992.
Phy Descript: 4 v. : maps ; 30 cm.
Notes: Volumes prepared for the IVth World Congress on National
Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela, 10-21
February 1992.
"Protected areas programme"--Cover.
"Published with the financial support of the British
Petroleum Company"--P. [4] of cover.
Includes bibliographical references.
Contents: Contents: Vol. 1. Indomalaya, Oceania, Australia and
Antarctic -- Vol. 2. Palaearctic -- Vol. 3. Afrotropical --
Vol. 4. Nearctic and neotropical.
LC Subject: Nature-conservation -- Congresses.
Natural-areas.
National-parks-and-reserves.
Other Author: World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources.
British Petroleum Company.
World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas (4th :
1992 : Caracas, Venezuela).
Series Info.: IUCN conservation library.
Status: Forest Resources Reference
QH75 .P76 1991 v.1 CHECK THE SHELVES LIBRARY USE ONLY
QH75 .P76 1991 v.2 CHECK THE SHELVES LIBRARY USE ONLY
QH75 .P76 1991 v.3 CHECK THE SHELVES LIBRARY USE ONLY
QH75 .P76 1991 v.4 CHECK THE SHELVES LIBRARY USE ONLY



Title: United Nations list of national parks and equivalent reserves =
Liste des Nations Unies des parcs nationaux et reserves 
analogues.
Pub. Info.: Morges, Suisse [etc.] International Union for Conservation
of Nature and Natural Resources [etc.].
Phy Descript: v. 24 cm.
Notes: Title varies slightly.
Vols. for 1962-73 have English title only.
Some editions are updated by supplements.
English and French, 1974- ; English, French, and Spanish,
<1993->
Vol. for 1962, pt. 1 issued by the U.N. Economic and Social
Council; 1962, pt. 2- by the IUCN International Commission
on National Parks; <1993-> by the World Conservation Monitoring
Centre and the IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected
Areas.
LC Subject: National-parks-and-reserves -- Directories.
Natural-areas -- Directories.
Parks -- Directories.
Other Author: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources.
United Nations. Economic and Social Council.
International Commission on National Parks.
World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas.
Other Title: United Nations list of national parks and protected areas.
Liste des Nations Unies des parcs nationaux et des aires
protegees.
Liste des Nations Unies des parcs nationaux et reserves
analogues 1974-.
List of national parks and equivalent reserves.
Series Info.: IUCN publications.
Holdings: Forest Resources General Stacks
CALL NUMBER: SB481.A1 U54
LIB HAS: 1971, 1971 suppl., 1975, 1985, 1990, 1993 Latest in
Forest Resources Ready Reference.
Natural Sciences Reference Books
CALL NUMBER: SB481.A1 U54
LIB HAS: 1985.
Status: CHECK THE SHELVES