Department of Electrical Engineering Faculty Papers
http://hdl.handle.net/1773/15629
2019-03-21T13:39:33ZInfluence of head models on neuromagnetic fields and inverse source localizations
http://hdl.handle.net/1773/15831
Influence of head models on neuromagnetic fields and inverse source localizations
Ramon, Ceon; Haueisen, Jens; Schimpf, Paul H.
Background: The magnetoencephalograms (MEGs) are mainly due to the source currents. However, there is a significant contribution to MEGs from the volume currents. The structure of the anatomical surfaces, e.g., gray and white matter, could severely influence the flow of volume currents in a head model. This, in turn, will also influence the MEGs and the inverse source localizations. This was examined in detail with three different human head models.
Methods: Three finite element head models constructed from segmented MR images of an adult male subject were used for this study. These models were: (1) Model 1: full model with eleven tissues that included detailed structure of the scalp, hard and soft skull bone, CSF, gray and white matter and other prominent tissues, (2) the Model 2 was derived from the Model 1 in which the conductivity of gray matter was set equal to the white matter, i.e., a ten tissuetype model, (3) the
Model 3 consisted of scalp, hard skull bone, CSF, gray and white matter, i.e., a five tissue-type model. The lead fields and MEGs due to dipolar sources in the motor cortex were computed for all three models. The dipolar sources were oriented normal to the cortical surface and had a dipole moment of 100 [micro]A meter. The inverse source localizations were performed with an exhaustive search pattern in the motor cortex area. A set of 100 trial inverse runs was made covering the 3 cm cube motor cortex area in a random fashion. The Model 1 was used as a reference model.
Results: The reference model (Model 1), as expected, performed best in localizing the sources in the motor cortex area. The Model 3 performed the worst. The mean source localization errors (MLEs) of the Model 3 were larger than the Model 1 or 2. The contour plots of the magnetic fields
on top of the head were also different for all three models. The magnetic fields due to source currents were larger in magnitude as compared to the magnetic fields of volume currents.
Discussion: These results indicate that the complexity of head models strongly influences the MEGs and the inverse source localizations. A more complex head model performs better in inverse
source localizations as compared to a model with lesser tissue surfaces.
2006-01-01T00:00:00ZInfluence of head models on EEG simulations and inverse source localizations
http://hdl.handle.net/1773/15830
Influence of head models on EEG simulations and inverse source localizations
Ramon, Ceon; Schimpf, Paul H.; Haueisen, Jens
Background: The structure of the anatomical surfaces, e.g., CSF and gray and white matter, could severely influence the flow of volume currents in a head model. This, in turn, will also influence the scalp potentials and the inverse source localizations. This was examined in detail with four different human head models.
Methods: Four finite element head models constructed from segmented MR images of an adult male subject were used for this study. These models were: (1) Model 1: full model with eleven tissues that included detailed structure of the scalp, hard and soft skull bone, CSF, gray and white matter and other prominent tissues, (2) the Model 2 was derived from the Model 1 in which the conductivity of gray matter was set equal to the white matter, i.e., a ten tissue-type model, (3) the Model 3 was derived from the Model 1 in which the conductivities of gray
matter and CSF were set equal to the white matter, i.e., a nine tissue-type model, (4) the Model 4 consisted of
scalp, hard skull bone, CSF, gray and white matter, i.e., a five tissue-type model. How model complexity influences the EEG source localizations was also studied with the above four finite element models of the head. The lead fields and scalp potentials due to dipolar sources in the motor cortex were computed for all four models. The inverse source localizations were performed with an exhaustive search pattern in the motor cortex area. The inverse analysis was performed by adding uncorrelated Gaussian noise to the scalp potentials to achieve a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of -10 to 30 dB. The Model 1 was used as a reference model.
Results: The reference model, as expected, performed the best. The Model 3, which did not have the CSF layer,
performed the worst. The mean source localization errors (MLEs) of the Model 3 were larger than the Model 1 or 2. The scalp potentials were also most affected by the lack of CSF geometry in the Model 3. The MLEs for the Model 4 were also larger than the Model 1 and 2. The Model 4 and the Model 3 had similar MLEs in the SNR range of -10 dB to 0 dB. However, in the SNR range of 5 dB to 30 dB, the Model 4 has lower MLEs as compared with the Model 3.
Discussion: These results indicate that the complexity of head models strongly influences the scalp potentials and the inverse source localizations. A more complex head model performs better in inverse source localizations as compared to a model with lesser tissue surfaces. The CSF layer plays an important role in modifying the scalp potentials and also influences the inverse source localizations. In summary, for best results one needs to have highly heterogeneous models of the head for accurate simulations of scalp potentials and for inverse source localizations.
2006-01-01T00:00:00ZSynchronization analysis of the uterine magnetic activity during contractions
http://hdl.handle.net/1773/15829
Synchronization analysis of the uterine magnetic activity during contractions
Ramon, Ceon; Preissl, Hubert; Murphy, Pam; Wilson, James D.; Lowery, Curtis; Eswaran, Hari
Background: Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent of synchronization of the spatial-temporal
myometrial activity over the human uterus before and during a contraction using transabdominal magnetomyographic
(MMG) recordings. Synchronization can be an important indicator for the quantification of uterine contractions.
Methods: The spatialtermporal myometrial activity recordings were performed using a 151-channel noninvasive magnetic sensor system called SARA. This device covers the entire pregnant abdomen and records the magnetic field corresponding to the electrical activity generated in the uterine myometrium. The data was collected at 250 samples/sec and was resampled with 25 samples/sec and then filtered in the band of 0.1-0.2 Hz to study the primary magnetic activity of the uterus related to contractions. The synchronization between a channel pair was computed. It was inferred from a statistical tendency to maintain a nearly constant phase difference over a given period of time even though the analytic phase of each channel may change markedly during that time frame. The analytic phase was computed after taking Hilbert transform of the magnetic field data. The process was applied on the pairs of magnetic field traces (240 sec length) with a stepping window of 20 sec duration which is long enough to cover two cycle of the lowest frequency of interest (0.1 Hz). The analysis was repeated by stepping the window at 10 sec intervals. The spatial patterns of the synchronization indices covering the anterior transabdominal area were computed. For this, regional coil-pairs were used. For a given coil, the coil pairs were constructed with the surrounding six coils. The synchronization indices were computed for each coil pair, averaged over the 21 coil-pairs and then assigned as the synchronization index to that particular coil. This procedure was tested on six pregnant subjects at the gestational age between 29 and 40 weeks admitted to the hospital for contractions. The RMS magnetic field for each coil was also computed.
Results: The results show that the spatial patterns of the synchronization indices change and follow the periodic pattern
of the uterine contraction cycle. Spatial patterns of synchronization indices and the RMS magnetic fields show similarities
in few window frames and also show large differences in few other windows. For six subjects, the average synchronization indices were: 0.346 [plus or minus] 0.068 for the quiescent baseline period and 0.545 [plus or minus] 0.022 at the peak of the contraction.
Discussion: These results show that synchronization indices and their spatial distributions depict uterine contractions
and relaxations.
2005-01-01T00:00:00Z