Short-term temporal changes in the characteristics of hydrothermal plumes at Rumble III volcano on the Kermadec arc, New Zealand
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Rumble III is a shallow volcano in the Kermadec Arc. Its plume is influenced by surface tidal currents. Using connectivity-temperature-depth-optical (CTD-O) measurements, this study demonstrates that the plume is distributed in the water column in concert with the tidal cycle. The venting source is another factor influencing plume distribution. At the source, the water temperature of Rumble III can be inferred to be in the range of 200 to 400 degrees Celsius. An understanding of the heat flux of submarine volcanoes is critical to understanding the heat budget of the world's oceans.