Enzyme estimates of infarct size correlate with functional and clinical outcomes in the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
Every, Nathan R.
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Background: Cardiac biomarkers are routinely obtained in the setting of suspected myocardial ischemia and infarction. Evidence suggests these markers may correlate with functional and clinical outcomes, but the strength of this correlation is unclear. The relationship between enzyme measures of myocardial necrosis and left ventricular performance and adverse clinical outcomes were explored. Methods: Creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB data were analyzed, as were left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by angiogram, and infarct size by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in patients in 2 trials: Prompt Reperfusion In Myocardial-infarction Evolution (PRIME), and Efegatran and Streptokinase to Canalize Arteries Like Accelerated Tissue plasminogen activator (ESCALAT). Both trials evaluated efegatran combined with thrombolysis for treating acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Results: Peak CK and CK area-under-the-curve (AUC) correlated significantly with SPECTdetermined infarct size 5 to 10 days after enrollment. Peak CK had a statistically significant correlation with LVEF, but CK-AUC and LVEF correlation were less robust. Statistically significant correlations exist between SPECT-determined infarct size and peak CK-MB and CK-MB AUC. However, there was no correlation with LVEF for peak CK-MB and CK-MB AUC. The combined outcome of congestive heart failure and death were significantly associated with CK AUC, CK-MB AUC, peak CK, and peak CK-MB measurements. Conclusion: Peak CK and CK-MB values and AUC calculations have significant correlation with functional outcomes (LVEF- and SPECT-determined infarct size) and death or CHF outcomes in the setting of STEMI. Cardiac biomarkers provide prognostic information and may serve as valid endpoint measurements for phase II clinical trials.