|dc.description.abstract||Background: In addition to immune cells, many other cell types are known to produce cytokines.
Cultured normal mouse gallbladder epithelial cells, used as a model system for gallbladder
epithelium, were examined for their ability to express the mRNA of various cytokines and
chemokines in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The synthesis and secretion of the tumor
necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) protein by these cells was also measured.
Results: Untreated mouse gallbladder cells expressed mRNA for TNF-α, RANTES, and
macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide, these cells now produced mRNA for Interleukin-1β
(IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and showed increased expression of TNF-α and MIP-2 mRNA. Untreated mouse gallbladder cells did not synthesize TNF-α protein; however, they did synthesize and secrete TNF-α upon
treatment with lipopolysaccharide.
Methods: Cells were treated with lipopolysaccharides from 3 strains of bacteria. Qualitative and
semi-quantitative RT-PCR, using cytokine or chemokine-specific primers, was used to measure mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, KC, RANTES, MCP-1, and MIP-2. TNF-α protein was
measured by immunoassays.
Conclusion: This research demonstrates that gallbladder epithelial cells in response to
lipopolysaccharide exposure can alter their cytokine and chemokine RNA expression pattern and
can synthesize and secrete TNF-α protein. This suggests a mechanism whereby gallbladder epithelial
cells in vivo may mediate gallbladder secretory function, inflammation and diseases in an autocrine/
paracrine fashion by producing and secreting cytokines and/or chemokines during sepsis.||en_US