Now showing items 21-40 of 48

    • How often do lizards "run on empty"? 

      Huey, Raymond B.; Pianka, Eric R.; Vitt, Laurie J. (Ecological Society of America, 2001-01)
      Energy balance is relevant to diverse issues in ecology, physiology, and evolution. To determine whether lizards are generally in positive energy balance, we synthesized a massive data set on the proportion of individual ...
    • Temperature, Demography, and Ectotherm Fitness 

      Huey, Raymond B.; Berrigan, David (University of Chicago Press, 2001-08)
    • Cost and conflict in animal signals and human language 

      Lachmann, Michael; Szamado, Szabolcs; Bergstrom, Carl T. (National Academy of Sciences USA, 2001-11-06)
      The "costly signalling" hypothesis proposes that animal signals are kept honest by appropriate signal costs. We show that to the contrary, signal cost is unnecessary for honest signalling even when interests conflict. We ...
    • Plants versus animals: do they deal with stress in different ways? 

      Huey, Raymond B.; Carlson, Margen; Crozier, Lisa; Frazier, Melanie; Hamilton, Hayden; Harley, Christopher; Hoang, Anhthu; Kingsolver, Joel G. (Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, 2002)
      Both plants and animals respond to stress by using adaptations that help them evade, tolerate, or recover from stress. In a synthetic paper A. D. Bradshaw (1972) noted that basic biological differences between plants and ...
    • Modeling of antibiotic resistance in the ICU - US Slant 

      Lipsitch, Marc; Bergstrom, Carl T. (Kluwer, 2002)
      Mathematical models are valuable tools with which to predict and explain the epidemiology of nosocomial infection. As such, modeling will play a crucial role in the effort to control the growing threat posed in hospitals ...
    • Within-host population dynamics and the evolution of microparasites in a heterogeneous host population 

      Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Antia, Rustom (Society for the Study of Evolution, 2002-02)
      Why do parasites harm their hosts? The general understanding is that if the transmission rate and virulence of a parasite are linked, then the parasite must harm its host in order to maximize its transmission. The exact ...
    • Separating equilibria in continuous signalling games 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Szamado, Szabolcs; Lachmann, Michael (The Royal Society of London, 2002-10-24)
      Much of the theoretical literature on costly signalling concentrates on the separating equilibria of continuous signalling games. At such equilibria, every signaller sends a distinct signal, and signal receivers are able ...
    • The Red King Effect: Evolutionary rates and the division of surpluses in mutualisms 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael (MIT Press, 2003)
      Mutualisms generate surpluses. While much of the theoretical literature to date focuses on mechanisms by which cooperation is stabilized so that these surpluses can continue to be produced and enjoyed, we address a second ...
    • Effect of human leukocyte antigen heterozygosity on infectious disease outcome: The need for allele-specific measures 

      Lipstitch, Marc; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Antia, Rustom (2003)
      Background: Doherty and Zinkernagel, who discovered that antigen presentation is restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, called HLA in humans), hypothesized that individuals heterozygous at particular MHC ...
    • Models of CD8+ Responses: 1. What is the Antigen-independent Proliferation Program 

      Antia, Rustom; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Pilyugin, Sergei S.; Kaech, Susan M.; Ahmed, Rafi (Elsevier Science, 2003)
      Recent experimental results show that even brief stimulation with antigen can cause antigenspecic CD8 T-cells to undergo sustained proliferation followed by differentiation into memory cells. These results show that the ...
    • Interspecific mutualism: Puzzles and predictions 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Bshary, Redouan; Connor, Richard C.; Daly, Martin; Frank, Steven A.; Gintis, Herbert; Keller, Laurant; Leimar, Olof; Noe, Ronald; Queller, David C. (MIT Press, 2003)
    • The role of evolution in the emergence of infectious diseases 

      Antia, Rustom; Regoes, Roland R.; Koella, Jacob C.; Bergstrom, Carl T. (Nature, 2003)
      It is unclear when, where and how novel pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), monkeypox and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) will cross the barriers that separate their natural reservoirs from human ...
    • The Red King Effect: When the slowest runner wins the coevolutionary race 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael (National Academy of Sciences USA, 2003-01-21)
      Mutualisms provide benefits to those who participate in them. As a mutualism evolves, how will these benefits come to be allocated among the participants? We approach this question using evolutionary game theory and explore ...
    • Effect of human leukocyte antigen heterozygosity on infectious disease outcome: the need for allele-specific measures 

      Lipsitch, Marc; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Antia, Rustom (Biomed Central, 2003-01-24)
      Background: Doherty and Zinkernagel, who discovered that antigen presentation is restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, called HLA in humans), hypothesized that individuals heterozygous at particular MHC ...
    • Behavioral Drive versus Behavioral Inertia in Evolution: A Null Model Approach 

      Huey, Raymond B.; Hertz, Paul E.; Sinervo, B. (University of Chicago Press, 2003-03)
      Some biologists embrace the classical view that changes in behavior inevitably initiate or drive evolutionary changes in other traits, yet others note that behavior sometimes inhibits evolutionary changes. Here we develop ...
    • Evolution of Mutator Genes in Bacterial Populations: The Roles of Environmental Change and Timing 

      Tanaka, Mark M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Levin, Bruce R. (Genetics Society of America, 2003-07)
      Recent studies have found high frequencies of bacteria with increased genomic rates of mutation in both clinical and laboratory populations. These observations may seem surprising in light of earlier experimental and ...
    • Mathematical models of RNA silencing: Unidirectional amplification limits accidental self-directed reactions 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; McKittrick, Erin K.; Antia, Rustom (National Academy of Sciences USA, 2003-09-30)
      RNA silencing, found broadly throughout the eukaryotes, post-transcriptionally suppresses the expression of aberrant genes including those of many viruses and transposons. Similar to the specific immune system of vertebrates, ...
    • The disadvantage of combinatorial communication 

      Lachmann, Michael; Bergstrom, Carl T. (The Royal Society of London, 2004)
      Combinatorial communication allows rapid and efficient transfer of detailed information, yet combinatorial communication is used by few, if any, non-human species. To complement recent studies illustrating the advantages ...
    • The costs and benefits of library site licenses to academic journals 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Bergstrom, Theodore C. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 2004)
      Scientific publishing is rapidly shifting from a paper-based system to one of predominantly electronic distribution, in which universities purchase site licenses for online access to journal contents. Will these changes ...
    • Real-Time Tracking of Control Measures for Emerging Infections 

      Lipsitch, Marc; Bergstrom, Carl T. (American Journal of Epidemiology, 2004)
      Health officials faced a daunting task with the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) last year: forecasting the trajectory of an emerging infectious disease and implementing effective control measures, ...