Now showing items 22-41 of 48

    • Interspecific mutualism: Puzzles and predictions 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Bshary, Redouan; Connor, Richard C.; Daly, Martin; Frank, Steven A.; Gintis, Herbert; Keller, Laurant; Leimar, Olof; Noe, Ronald; Queller, David C. (MIT Press, 2003)
    • Latitudinal pattern of between-altitude faunal similarity: mountains might be "higher" in the tropics 

      Huey, Raymond B. (The University of Chicago, 1978-01)
      Moving up or down a mountain from a given site, one encounters faunas that differ by varying degrees. The elevational separation between sites obviously influences the magnitude of that difference (faunal similarity is ...
    • Mathematical models of RNA silencing: Unidirectional amplification limits accidental self-directed reactions 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; McKittrick, Erin K.; Antia, Rustom (National Academy of Sciences USA, 2003-09-30)
      RNA silencing, found broadly throughout the eukaryotes, post-transcriptionally suppresses the expression of aberrant genes including those of many viruses and transposons. Similar to the specific immune system of vertebrates, ...
    • Modeling of antibiotic resistance in the ICU - US Slant 

      Lipsitch, Marc; Bergstrom, Carl T. (Kluwer, 2002)
      Mathematical models are valuable tools with which to predict and explain the epidemiology of nosocomial infection. As such, modeling will play a crucial role in the effort to control the growing threat posed in hospitals ...
    • Models of CD8+ Responses: 1. What is the Antigen-independent Proliferation Program 

      Antia, Rustom; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Pilyugin, Sergei S.; Kaech, Susan M.; Ahmed, Rafi (Elsevier Science, 2003)
      Recent experimental results show that even brief stimulation with antigen can cause antigenspecic CD8 T-cells to undergo sustained proliferation followed by differentiation into memory cells. These results show that the ...
    • Multiple Mating, Sperm Competition, and Meiotic Drive 

      Haig, David; Bergstrom, Carl T. (Blackwell Publishing LTD, 1995)
      Most discussions of "sperm competition" have ignored the potential for competition among the different sperm genotypes present in the ejaculate of a single male. Rivalry within ejaculates may limit cooperation among the ...
    • Natural selection, infectious transfer, and the existence conditions for bacterial plasmids 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lipsitch, Marc; Levin, Bruce R. (Genetics, 2000-08)
      Despite the near-ubiquity of plasmids in bacterial populations and the profound contribution of plasmid-borne genes and infectious gene transfer to the adaptation and evolution of bacteria, the mechanisms responsible for ...
    • On RNA interference as template immunity 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Antia, Rustom (Indian Academy of Sciences, 2005)
    • Plants versus animals: do they deal with stress in different ways? 

      Huey, Raymond B.; Carlson, Margen; Crozier, Lisa; Frazier, Melanie; Hamilton, Hayden; Harley, Christopher; Hoang, Anhthu; Kingsolver, Joel G. (Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, 2002)
      Both plants and animals respond to stress by using adaptations that help them evade, tolerate, or recover from stress. In a synthetic paper A. D. Bradshaw (1972) noted that basic biological differences between plants and ...
    • A population-epigenetic model to infer site-specific methylation rates from double-stranded DNA methylation patterns 

      Genereux, Diane P.; Miner, Brooks E.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Laird, Charles D. (National Academy of Sciences USA, 2005)
      Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic mechanism in eukaryotes that is often associated with stable transcriptional silencing, such as in X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting. Aberrant methylation patterns occur ...
    • Pure versus mixed strategists: the evolution of behavioral heterogeneity in individuals and populations 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Godfrey-Smith, Peter (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998)
      A wide range of ecological and evolutionary models predict variety in phenotype or behavior when a population is at equilibrium. This heterogeneity can be realized in different ways. For example, it can be realized through ...
    • Real-Time Tracking of Control Measures for Emerging Infections 

      Lipsitch, Marc; Bergstrom, Carl T. (American Journal of Epidemiology, 2004)
      Health officials faced a daunting task with the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) last year: forecasting the trajectory of an emerging infectious disease and implementing effective control measures, ...
    • The Red King Effect: Evolutionary rates and the division of surpluses in mutualisms 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael (MIT Press, 2003)
      Mutualisms generate surpluses. While much of the theoretical literature to date focuses on mechanisms by which cooperation is stabilized so that these surpluses can continue to be produced and enjoyed, we address a second ...
    • The Red King Effect: When the slowest runner wins the coevolutionary race 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael (National Academy of Sciences USA, 2003-01-21)
      Mutualisms provide benefits to those who participate in them. As a mutualism evolves, how will these benefits come to be allocated among the participants? We approach this question using evolutionary game theory and explore ...
    • Risky business: Sexual and asexual reproduction in variable environments 

      Robson, Arthur J.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Pritchard, Jonathan K. (Academic Press LTD Elsevier Scientific LTD, 1999)
      Patterns of reproductive uncertainty can have an important influence on population dynamics. There is a crucial distinction between what we describe here as aggregate uncertainty (in which reproductive output in each ...
    • The role of evolution in the emergence of infectious diseases 

      Antia, Rustom; Regoes, Roland R.; Koella, Jacob C.; Bergstrom, Carl T. (Nature, 2003)
      It is unclear when, where and how novel pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), monkeypox and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) will cross the barriers that separate their natural reservoirs from human ...
    • Separating equilibria in continuous signalling games 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Szamado, Szabolcs; Lachmann, Michael (The Royal Society of London, 2002-10-24)
      Much of the theoretical literature on costly signalling concentrates on the separating equilibria of continuous signalling games. At such equilibria, every signaller sends a distinct signal, and signal receivers are able ...
    • Signalling Among Relatives. I. When is signalling too costly? 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael (The Royal Society, 1997)
      Zahavi's handicap principle, originally proposed as an explanation for sexual selection of elaborate male traits (Zahavi, 1975) suggests that signalling can be honest if less desirable signallers must pay a higher cost in ...
    • Signalling among relatives. II. Beyond the Tower of Babel. 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael (Academic Press INC Elsevier Science, 1998)
      Models of costly signalling are commonly employed in evolutionary biology in order to explain how honest communication between individuals with conflicting interests can be stable. These models have focused primarily on a ...
    • Signalling Among Relatives. III. Talk is cheap. 

      Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael (National Academy of Sciences, 1998-04)
      The Sir Philip Sidney game has been used by numerous authors to show how signal cost can facilitate honest signaling among relatives. Here, we demonstrate that, in this game, honest cost-free signals are possible as well, ...