Pedestrian Safety in Peru: The role of visible signalization, transit stops and other features of the built environment
Quistberg, Duane Alexander
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<bold>Background:</bold> In Peru, pedestrians are 78% of road fatality victims. The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between signalization for pedestrians, bus stop characteristics, and other features of the walking environment and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs). <bold>Methods:</bold> A matched case-control study design was used where the objects of study were crossing locations. A two stage cluster sample was used to select eleven police commissaries in Lima, Peru for study. Case accrual occurred from October, 2010 through January, 2011. Out of 406 PMVCs reported there were 97 incidents at intersections (weighted N=1134) and 40 at mid-blocks (weighted N=469) that met study criteria. Each case was matched to one control based on proximity, street classification and number of lanes. Site characteristics were recorded February, 2011 to September, 2011. Each analysis was controlled for potential confounding variables (vehicle and pedestrian traffic flow, crossing width, and mean vehicle speed) and accounted for the weighted sampling design and matching between case and control sites. <bold>Results:</bold> Signalization was not significantly associated with PMVCs. The presence of a phased pedestrian signal (green or red-lit signal) was significantly associated with case status compared to no signalization (OR 8.88, 95% CI 1.32-59.6). Longer pedestrian-specific signal duration was associated with an elevated risk for a pedestrian collision (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.02-9.60 per 15-second interval). Intersections with bus stops were more likely to have a police-reported pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53-7.03). Sites with a curb present (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33-0.80) or a pedestrian barricade (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.96) were significantly less likely to have had a PMVC. The presence of parked vehicles (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.08-9.05) or street vendors (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.55-4.37) increased the likelihood of a PMVC. <bold>Conclusions:</bold> Several features appeared to be beneficial to pedestrians (curbs and pedestrian barricades) and others that may have created dangerous situations for pedestrians (signalization, bus stops at intersections, parked vehicles and street vendors). Pedestrian or driver behaviors could possibly explain some of the findings. Better police enforcement or better feature design may help improve the function of the built environment features.
- Epidemiology