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Hydrohalite in cold sea ice: Laboratory observations of single crystals, surface accumulations, and migration rates under a temperature gradient, with application to “Snowball Earth"
(Journal of Geophysical Research, 2009)
When NaCl precipitates out of a saturated solution, it forms anhydrous crystals of halite at temperatures above +0.11?C, but at temperatures below this threshold it instead precipitates as the dihydrate ‘‘hydrohalite,’’ NaCl * 2H2O. When sea ice is cooled, hydrohalite begins to precipitate within brine inclusions at about ...
Effects of bubbles, cracks, and volcanic tephra on the spectral albedo of bare ice near the Transantarctic Mountains: Implications for sea glaciers on Snowball Earth
(Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 2013)
Spectral albedo was measured along a 6 km transect near the Allan Hills in East Antarctica. The transect traversed the sequence from new snow through old snow, firn, and white ice, to blue ice, showing a systematic progression of decreasing albedo at all wavelengths, as well as decreasing specific surface area (SSA) and ...