Underwater Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea: Intensity Fluctuations
White, Andrew W.
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In the spring of 2009, broadband transmissions from a ship-suspended source with a 284 Hz center frequency were received on a moored and navigated vertical array of hydrophones over a range of 107 km in the Philippine Sea. During a 60-hour period over 19 000 transmissions were carried out. The observed wavefront arrival structure reveals four distinct purely refracted acoustic paths: one with a single upper turning point near 80 m depth, two with a pair of upper turning points at a depth of roughly 300 m, and one with three upper turning points at 420 m. Individual path intensity, defined as the absolute square of the center frequency Fourier component for that ar- rival, was estimated over the 60-hour duration and used to compute scintillation index and log-intensity variance. Monte Carlo parabolic equation simulations using internal- wave induced sound speed perturbations obeying the Garrett-Munk internal-wave en- ergy spectrum were in agreement with measured data for the three deeper-turning paths but differed by as much as a factor of four for the near surface-interacting path. Estimates of the power spectral density and temporal autocorrelation function of in- tensity were attempted, but were complicated by gaps in the measured time-series. Deep fades in intensity were observed in the near surface-interacting path. Hypoth- esized causes for the deep fades were examined through further acoustic propagation modeling and analysis of various available oceanographic measurements.