Traffic-related Air Pollution, PM2.5: The Case of Shanghai
MetadataShow full item record
Vehicle emissions are the most contributory source of urban air pollution in the major metropolitan areas in Europe and the US, so much recent research has focused on transportation-related air pollution (TRAP). However, air pollution in Shanghai is now becoming much more serious than in most of the US, the result of both motorization and industrialization. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is to be blamed for the worst pollution in recent years. The record shows that the density of PM2.5 is hovering around 400 micrograms per cubic meter, an almost unthinkable level. These days, the elderly and children are required to stay indoors and some air flights are cancelled. The economic success of Shanghai is counterbalanced by health concerns and the negative economic impacts associated with air pollution. This study focuses on TRAP-PM2.5 and aims to explain how air quality differs within the region and where the vulnerable populations (adults over 65 and children under 14) live. This study uses two methodologies to assess the changes and dispersion of PM2.5 produced by the growing traffic volume between 2003 and 2009. Methodology 1 (TRAP by Year) aims to examine the shifting total amount of PM2.5 emissions produced by the transportation sector over time. It is calculated with annual vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) and related fuel consumption by vehicle types. Methodology 2 (TRAP by Location) focuses on the daily transportation-related PM2.5 emissions across subareas in Shanghai. It is calculated via traffic density. Census, traffic and air pollution data, GIS Geostatistical tools, the Gaussian Dispersion Model and the Kringing Interpolation Tool are used to analyze PM2.5 dispersion in the Inner City and the suburbs of Shanghai. The Shanghai TRAP-Spatial Health Hazard Priority Area (TRAP-SHHPA) scoring method is then developed to highlight the more polluted subarea locations where the vulnerable populations are concentrated. The findings show that policies to restrict motorcycles and heavy trucks outside the central districts and the imposition of cleaner emission standards help to reduce the concentrations of PM2.5 in the city center. However, the study also shows that PM2.5 concentrations in suburban areas, primarily residential areas, are increasing.
- Urban planning