Speak up or Be Silent? Language Learners' Anxiety and Motivation on Speaking up in ELL and Non-ELL Classrooms
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This study looks at the relationship between language learners' anxiety and motivation in speaking up during ELL and mainstream classrooms. The survey of 132 high school English language learners revealed that 1) language learners' task orientation and language related ego orientation differed in ELL classrooms and mainstream classrooms; 2) although language learners reported feeling less pressure to speak in mainstream classrooms, they felt more anxious and participated less in mainstream classrooms than in ELL classrooms; 3) language learners' levels of task orientation were lower while their levels of avoidance orientations (ego avoidance and work avoidance) were higher in mainstream classrooms than in ELL classrooms; and 4) high levels of task orientation and encouragement from teachers and classmates were found to be related to higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of participation in mainstream classrooms. The results are discussed in relation to language ideology and power dynamics between native speakers and non-native speakers.
- Education - Seattle