The association between baseline fructose consumption and baseline biomarkers of inflammation in a randomized controlled feeding trial.
Background: High fructose intake, especially through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, has been associated with increased risk of chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and cancer. Biomarkers of inflammation are useful indicators of low-grade chronic inflammation caused by chronic diseases. Objective: To examine the association between baseline fructose consumption and baseline biomarkers of inflammation in the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) Study participants. Methods: Data are from the CARB Study conducted at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC), with healthy adult participants. Baseline 12-hour fasting serum samples were collected to measure biomarkers of inflammation, which were high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). At baseline, participants completed 3-day food records and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to estimate their dietary intake. Each participant also received a full-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan to assess percent body fat. Participants were then stratified into two subgroups, based on their percent body fat. Statistical Analysis: Ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression models were utilized to quantify the association between fructose consumption and biomarkers of inflammation. Effect modification assessment was performed to examine the difference between associations of fructose consumption and biomarkers in the two subgroups. Adjustments were made for participants' age, sex, percent body fat, glycemic load, and energy intake. Results: Eighty participants were included in this analysis. Participants with high percent body fat (>32% for female and >25% for male) tended to be older and more likely to be female than those with low percent body fat (<32% for female and <25% for male). On average, participants with low percent body fat consumed more energy, fructose, glucose, added sugar, sweetened soft drinks, and had higher glycemic load diets than participants with high percent body fat. Using both univariate- and multivariate-adjusted models, there was no significant associations between fructose consumption and biomarkers of inflammation. Conclusion: In CARB Study participants, we found no significant association between fructose consumption and hs-CRP, SAA, or IL-6 concentrations. Further investigation of this association could be designed with a larger sample size and greater difference in fructose consumption among participants.
- Nutritional sciences