Comparing the Relative Impact of Parent- and Coach-Initiated Motivational Climates on Young Athletes' Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation.
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Sport-related motivational climate research has been primarily focused on the impact of coaches, whereas parental influence has been a secondary focus. This study focused on 543 youth athletes (ages 9-16) on 82 teams in recreational community center basketball leagues. The impact of the motivational climates created both by parents and by coaches on post-season athlete outcomes of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation was examined. A newly developed adaptation of the Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, the Parent-Attributed Standards for Success Scale (PASSS) was used to measure athletes' perceptions of mastery and ego-oriented parental success criteria, the central component of parental motivational climate. A multi-level regression analysis revealed that perceived parent success standards were a significant predictor of youth outcomes over and above coach motivational climate. We discuss why we think this occurred and suggest future directions for further research on the subject matter as well as possible interventions that can be used to increase positive parent motivational styles.
- Psychology