Association of Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Children using NHANES 2005-2006 Data
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Purpose: This study seeks to determine associations between serum vitamin D levels and dental caries in non-institutionalized U.S. children ages 5-12. Methods: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 was utilized. Vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy were defined according to the Institute of Medicine 2011 guidelines. Associations between vitamin D and caries were examined after adjustment for relevant confounders using multivariate logistic regression at a critical value of 5%. Sample weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates. Results: The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D inadequacy among 5-12 year olds was 3% and 16%, respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was greater among Blacks (13%), females (3%), severe asthmatics (10%), those of lower ratio of family income to poverty threshold (4%), who had public health insurance (4%), were not physically active (7%), consumed less than 1 milk product per week (6%) and spent 5 or more hours watching television, playing videos games or on the computer (5%). Prevalence of dental caries among 5-12 year olds with sufficient vitamin D levels was 19%. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy among children with dental caries was 3% and 18%, respectively. No significant association was found between vitamin D deficiency (P=.839) or inadequacy (P=.984) and dental caries. Conclusions: Our findings do not provide convincing evidence of a relationship between vitamin D exposure and dental caries, but nor does it provide convincing evidence to the contrary. Interventional studies are needed to further examine this topic.
- Dentistry