Judging the Orientation of Sinusoidal and Square-Wave Virtual Gratings Presented via 2-DOF and 3-DOF Haptic Interfaces
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The ability of observers to resolve the orientation of virtual gratings presented on two different haptic interfaces was investigated. Gratings were presented either with the 2-degree-of-freedom Immersion IE2000, or with the 3-degree-of-freedom SensAble Devices PHANToM. Results showed excellent resolution of both sinusoidal and square-wave gratings with both devices. Possible factors that may have influenced the results, such as force models, force vectors, and end effectors, are addressed.