Cardiovascular Health Effects of 100% Fruit Juice Versus Whole Fruit in Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative
Auerbach, Brandon J.
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Introduction We investigated whether 100% fruit juice and whole fruit were independently related to incident hypertension or incident type 2 diabetes. Methods We included women 50-79 years old enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative. The risk of incident hypertension was analyzed in 80,539 participants and risk of incident diabetes in 114,219 participants. One hundred percent fruit juice and whole fruit intake were assessed by baseline food frequency questionnaire. Standardized questionnaires assessed medical history and other characteristics at baseline and every 6-12 months during follow-up. Cox regression, adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and dietary variables (including total energy intake) was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the associations between 100% fruit juice and whole fruit consumption and incident hypertension and diabetes during a mean of 7.8 years of follow-up. Results In multivariable analyses, there was no association between 100% fruit juice consumption and incident hypertension (highest vs. lowest quintile, HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.03) or incident diabetes (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.92-1.04). There was also no association between whole fruit consumption and incident hypertension (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.98-1.05) or incident diabetes (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96-1.10). Conclusion Greater consumption of 100% fruit juice or whole fruit was not associated with risk of incident hypertension or diabetes among postmenopausal US women.
- Epidemiology