Real-time photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxidation reaction kinetics on p-type and n-type Si (001) surfaces
Silicon oxides thermally grown on Si surface are the core gate materials of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). This thin oxide layer insulates the gate terminals and the transistors substrate which make MOSFET has certain advantages over those conventional junctions, such as field-effect transistor (FET) and junction field effect transistor (JFET). With an oxide insulating layer, MOSFET is able to sustain higher input impedance and the corresponding gate leakage current can be minimized. Today, though the oxidation process on Si substrate is popular in industry, there are still some uncertainties about its oxidation kinetics. On a path to clarify and modeling the oxidation kinetics, a study of initial oxidation kinetics on Si (001) surface has attracted attentions due to having a relatively low surface electron density and few adsorption channels compared with other Si surface direction. Based on previous studies, there are two oxidation models of Si (001) that extensively accepted, which are dual oxide species mode and autocatalytic reaction model. These models suggest the oxidation kinetics on Si (001) mainly relies on the metastable oxygen atom on the surface and the kinetic is temperature dependent. Professor Yuji Takakuwa’s group, Surface Physics laboratory, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, observed surface strain existed during the oxidation kinetics on Si (001) and this is the first time that strain was discovered during Si oxidation. Therefore, it is necessary to explain where the strain comes from since none of previous model research included the surface strain (defects generation) into considerations. Moreover, recent developing of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) requires a simultaneous oxidation process on p- and n-type Si substrate. However, none of those previous models included the dopant factor into the oxidation kinetic modeling. All of these points that further work is necessary to update and modify the traditional Si (001) oxidation models that had been accepted for several decades. To update and complement the Si (001) oxidation kinetics, an understanding of the temperature and dopant factor during initial oxidation kinetics on Si (001) is our first step. In this study, real-time photoelectron spectroscopy is applied to characterize the oxidized (001) surface and surface information was collected by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy technique. By analyzing parameters such as O 2p spectra uptake, change of work function and the surface state in respect of p- and n- type Si (001) substrate under different temperature, the oxygen adsorption structure and the dopant factor can be determined. In this study, experiments with temperature gradients on p-type Si (001) were conducted and this aims to clarify the temperature dependent characteristic of Si (001) surface oxidation. A comparison of the O 2p uptake, change of work function and surface state between p-and n-type Si (001) is made under a normal temperature and these provides with the data to explain how the dopant factor impacts the oxygen adsorption structure on the surface. In the future, the study of the oxygen adsorption structure will lead to an explanation of the surface strain that discovered; therefore, fundamental of the initial oxidation on Si (001) would be updated and complemented, which would contribute to the future gate technology in MOSFET and CMOS.