Changes in Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations from Child Participation in Bicycle Trains for Commuting to and from School
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Background: Active commuting to school (ACS) is associated with increased physical activity and lowered risk of obesity. In observational studies, ACS was associated with child self-efficacy, parent self-efficacy and parent outcome expectations, although few experiments have assessed changes in these behavioral constructs. Aim: This study examined the effects of a bicycle train intervention on child self-efficacy, parent self-efficacy and parent outcome expectations in a diverse, low socioeconomic status (SES) population. Methods: Data was from a 2014 bicycle train pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) on 4-5th graders, n=54, from four schools serving low-income populations in Seattle, WA. The intervention was a bicycle train program led by study staff who cycled to/from school daily while controls received no intervention. Responses to validated child self-efficacy, parent self-efficacy, and parent outcome expectations questionnaires ranged from 1-3. Adjusted linear mixed effects models estimated standardized coefficients for child self-efficacy, parent self-efficacy and parent outcome expectations comparing intervention and controls from time 1 (pre-intervention) to time 2 (final 4-6 weeks of intervention). Results: The intervention group had increases in child self-efficacy of 0.84 standard deviations (95% CI [0.37, 1.31]), parent self-efficacy of 0.46 standard deviations (95% CI [0.05, 0.86]) and parent self-efficacy of 0.47 standard deviations (95% CI [0.17, 0.76]) compared to controls from times 1 to 2. Conclusion: A bicycle train improved child self-efficacy, parent self-efficacy and parent outcome expectations, which warrants a larger RCT to examine long term changes to these behavioral constructs and ACS.
- Nutritional sciences