Seismic Study of Tremor, Deep Long-Period Earthquakes, and Basin Amplification of Ground Motion
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In this thesis, we use seismic data and seismological tools to investigate three topics, (1) triggering between slow slip (tremor as proxy) and nearby small earthquakes, (2) mechanisms of deep-long period earthquakes beneath Mount St. Helens, and (3) ground motion amplification in Seattle Basin. In Chapter 1, we investigate 12-year earthquake and tremor catalogs for southwest Japan, and find nearby small intraslab earthquakes are weakly correlated with tremor. In particular, intraslab earthquakes tend to be followed by tremor more often than expected at random, while the excess number of tremor before earthquakes is not as significant. The underlying triggering mechanism of tremor and inferred slow slip by earthquakes is most likely to be the dynamic stress changes (several to several tens of kPa) rather than the much smaller static stress changes. In Chapter 2, we use the catalog DLPs as templates to search for repeating events at Mount St. Helens (MSH). We have detected 277 DLPs, compared to only 22 events previously in the catalog from 2007 to 2016. Three templates from the catalog are single events, while all other templates produced matches, identifying loci of repeated activity. Overall, the detected DLPs show no significant correlation with either the subduction zone tremor and slow slip (ETS) west of MSH, or the shallow seismicity. Temporal analysis shows an elevated rate of DLPs at time of compressional tidal stress, suggesting their possible association with magmatic and/or fluid activity. We observed variable S wave polarization of the DLPs from the most productive DLP source region, indicating their source mechanisms are not identical. In Chapter 3, we use noise correlation to retrieve the empirical green’s functions (EGFs) in Seattle Basin. Consistent amplitudes measured from noise EGFs, teleseismic S wave and numerical simulations all suggest the usefulness of the amplitude of EGFs. For surface wave with period of 5-10 sec propagating from west to east, the ground motion is amplified by a factor of up to 3 within the basin. The bias of EGFs from noise heterogeneity and uncertainties of synthetics due to inaccuracy of velocity model are still to be investigated.