Simultaneous Serologic and Phenotypic Analyses of Blood on Silicon Photonics
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Blood loss is one of the leading causes of hospital-related mortality. Severe degree of exsanguination of trauma patients requires massive blood transfusion in which multiple units of blood products are administered for the fluid resuscitation. Despite our good understanding of blood group compatibility in transfusion medicine, the process of transfusion in the emergent scenarios is still challenged by the underrepresentation of competitive technologies commercialized specifically to perform rapid blood testing at the site of transfusion. Racing against time, trauma physicians are constrained by urgency to administering universal blood units, such as type-O red blood cells, to the patients. Given the diversity of blood groups and their different prevalence across demographic backgrounds, a lack of thorough profiling of patients’ red blood cell phenotypes and plasma antibodies prior to transfusion could ensue both acute and chronic adverse side effects that may further complicate their possible transfusions and pregnancy in the future. The ultimate goal of the research described in this dissertation is to expedite the process of serologic and phenotypic characterizations of blood to determine the patient’s blood type, allowing for better matched blood products to be delivered. With its emerging roles in rapid, real-time biosensing applications, silicon photonics has actively been explored in the development of various clinical assays following both label-based and label-free strategies. To address the aforementioned unmet need for reduced transfusion turnaround time, we took advantage of the multiplexed feature of silicon photonic sensors for simultaneous serologic and phenotypic analyses of ABO/RhD blood group systems by combining the forward and reverse typing assays on a single sensor chip. The first two chapters of this dissertation provide necessary backgrounds in silicon photonics and blood transfusion. The third and fourth chapters are dedicated to laying the groundwork for the method development of forward and reverse typing assays and discussing preliminary results. Lastly, the final chapter, built upon the previous chapters, describes the process of developing multiplexed sensors capable of performing both forward and reverse typing. Based on our current accomplishments, future improvements upon assay optimization and device miniaturization could undoubtedly help translate this technology into the clinical use.
- Bioengineering