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dc.contributor.authorSteiner, Robert A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGrafstein-Dunn, Ellenen_US
dc.contributor.authorClifton, Donald K.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2008-10-17T20:41:52Z
dc.date.available2008-10-17T20:41:52Z
dc.date.issued1994-12en_US
dc.identifier.citationHorm Behav. 1994 Dec;28(4):417-23en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1773/4381
dc.description.abstractGalanin is a cotransmitter in GnRH neurons and is thought to play a role in the control of gonadotropin secretion. The aim of our research has been to learn how galanin mRNA is regulated in GnRH neurons with the goal of understanding galanin's physiological significance. We have used double-label in situ hybridization and computerized image analysis to identify GnRH neurons coexpressing galanin mRNA and to estimate cellular levels of galanin message in these cells under different physiological conditions in the rat. In adult females, levels of galanin mRNA in GnRH neurons increase two- to fourfold with the onset of the proestrous and steroid-induced LH surges. Pharmacological blockade of synaptic transmission with either a general anesthetic (pentobarbital) or an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist (phenoxybenzamine) inhibits both the steroid-induced LH surge and the associated induction of galanin expression in GnRH neurons. Compared with the day of diestrus of the estrous cycle, during lactation cellular levels of galanin mRNA in GnRH neurons are profoundly reduced. In contrast to galanin mRNA in GnRH neurons, we could adduce no evidence for changes in cellular levels of GnRH mRNA under any physiological conditions or with any pharmacological manipulations. We conclude that alterations in galanin gene expression play a fundamental role in governing the functional activity of GnRH neurons, possibly by acting presynaptically to shape GnRH pulses, thereby determining the biological efficacy of GnRH action at its target cells in the pituitary.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.subjectGnRHen_US
dc.subjecthypothalamusen_US
dc.subjectraten_US
dc.subjectgalaninen_US
dc.subject.meshNeurons, drug effects, physiologyen_US
dc.subject.meshLactation, genetics, physiologyen_US
dc.subject.meshPeptides, geneticsen_US
dc.subject.meshProsencephalon, physiologyen_US
dc.subject.meshNeuropeptides, geneticsen_US
dc.subject.meshEstrus, genetics, physiologyen_US
dc.subject.meshAnimalsen_US
dc.subject.meshGonadorelin, genetics, physiologyen_US
dc.subject.meshSynaptic Transmission, genetics, physiologyen_US
dc.subject.meshRNA, Messenger, geneticsen_US
dc.subject.meshRatsen_US
dc.subject.meshFemaleen_US
dc.subject.meshPregnancyen_US
dc.subject.meshImage Processing, Computer-Assisteden_US
dc.subject.meshIn Situ Hybridizationen_US
dc.subject.meshHypothalamus, physiologyen_US
dc.subject.meshResearch Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.en_US
dc.subject.meshGalaninen_US
dc.subject.meshGene Expression Regulation, physiologyen_US
dc.titleRegulation of galanin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in the hypothalamus and basal forebrain of the raten_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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