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dc.contributor.authorFu, Qiang
dc.contributor.authorWhite, Rachel H
dc.contributor.authorWang, Mingcheng
dc.contributor.authorAlexander, Becky
dc.contributor.authorSolomon, Susan
dc.contributor.authorGettelman, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorBattisti, David
dc.contributor.authorLin, Pu
dc.description.abstractThe Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) during the last glacial maximum (LGM) is investigated in simulations using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model version 6 (WACCM6). We examine vertical mass fluxes, age of stratospheric air, and the transformed Eulerian mean stream function and find that the modeled annual-mean BDC during the LGM is almost everywhere slower than that in the modern climate (with or without anthropogenic ozone depleting substances). Compared to the modern climate, the annual-mean tropical upwelling in the LGM is 11.3-16.9%, 11.2-15.8%, and 4.4-10.2% weaker, respectively, at 100, 70, and 30 hPa. It is shown that the decrease in the annual-mean tropical upwelling at 70 hPa is caused by a weaker orographic gravity wave drag.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by NSF Grant AGS-1821437 and NASA Grant 80NSSC18K1031. RHW was partially funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 797961. SS was partially funded under NSF grant 1848863. We would like to acknowledge high-performance computing support from Cheyenne (doi:10.5065/D6RX99HX) provided by NCAR's Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, for the WACCM6 simulations and analyses presented in this study and for the data management, storage and preservation. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the United States National Science Foundation.en_US
dc.publisherGeophysical Research Letteren_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States*
dc.subjectBrewer-Dobson circulationen_US
dc.subjectlast glacial maximumen_US
dc.subjectorographic gravity wave dragen_US
dc.titleThe Brewer-Dobson Circulation during the Last Glacial Maximumen_US

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