Dynamic assessment in phonological disorders: the scaffolding scale of stimulability
The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS) is a dynamic assessment of phonological change. Using the SSS, clinicians evaluate phonological skills by documenting a child's response to cues and manipulations of the linguistic environment. The SSS differs from standard phonological assessments, which only assess productions elicited in a static manner without assistance. When administering the SSS, clinicians rate each target production using a 21-point ordinal scale that represents the number of cues and assistance or "scaffolds" that could be used to assist the child in production. Over time, children need less scaffolding and this change is reflected by a lower score on the measure. In the current study, sensitivity and patterns of change on the SSS were compared to one dynamic assessment, the Carter-Buck Articulation Assessment (Carter & Buck, 1958), and three static assessments: a probe of single-words individualized to the children's errors, the Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns (HAPP-3)(Hodson, 2004), and Percent Consonants in Error (adapted from Shriberg & Kwiatkowski, 1982). The measures were administered to eight preschool age children with moderate-to-profound phonological disorder across six months of Cycles treatment. The measures were administered prior to treatment, after three months of treatment, and after six months of treatment. Results indicated that the SSS showed the greatest percentage of change across participants more frequently than the other measures. Patterns of change on the SSS were more even across two cycles of treatment or showed a greater percentage of change during Cycle 1. The Carter-Buck, another dynamic assessment, showed patterns of change consistent with the static assessments, in particular, the HAPP-3. The static assessments more frequently showed a greater change during Cycle 1 or Cycle 2, rather than even change. Percentage of change on the probe measure varied across the children with no consistent pattern. The PCE was most unusual because seven of the eight participants showed regression on this measure. Overall, the SSS was considered the most sensitive measure for documenting change across time in children with phonological disorders.
- Speech