Bidirectional Relations Between Temperament and Parenting Predicting Preschool-age Children's Adjustment
Klein, Melanie Rachael
MetadataShow full item record
This study examined the bidirectional associations between child temperament (fear, frustration, positive affect, effortful control) and parenting behaviors (warmth, negativity, limit setting, scaffolding, responsiveness) in predicting preschool-age children's adjustment problems and social competence. Using a community sample (n = 306) of children and their mothers assessed at three time points (children's ages 36, 54, and 63 months), observational measures of child temperament and parenting were obtained during laboratory tasks. Cross-lagged analyses were performed to examine whether temperament and parenting predict changes in one another, whether they each contribute independently to children's adjustment (total problems and social competence), and whether these transactional relations account for adjustment outcomes. There was no evidence of bidirectional relations between fear and parenting. Maternal negativity at 36 months predicted child frustration at 54 months. Maternal negativity and executive control predicted decreases in each other, whereas, scaffolding and executive control predicted increases in each other over time. Frustration, effortful control, warmth, negativity, responsiveness, and scaffolding each independently predicted child adjustment problems. Maternal negativity predicted decreases in child social competence, while child effortful control predicted increases in child social competence. The findings suggest that temperament and parenting have independent and additive effects on child adjustment, with some support for a transactional relation between temperament and parenting.
- Psychology