The influence of masculinity and gender equality on violence against women in young male university students in Turkey
MetadataShow full item record
Background: Gender inequalities increase the risk of male violence against women (VAW). The roles and behaviors of women and men, children as well as adults, are constructed and reinforced by gender norms in the community and society. For this reason, constructions and conceptualizations of masculinities and femininities, gender roles for men and women need to be understood well to develop programs to prevent VAW. This dissertation is composed of three papers. The purpose of first paper is to review literature on VAW in Turkey for determining influencing factors on VAW and proposing potential interventions based on social ecological framework. The purpose of second paper is to explore perspectives of young Turkish men, aged 18-25, about meanings and conceptualizations of masculinity. The purpose of third paper is to explore views of Turkish male university students about men’s gender roles in family life. Method: First paper critically examined VAW in Turkey based on social ecological framework. Organized into four sections; (1) Family structure and cultural practices related to women’s rights in Turkey; (2) VAW in Turkey: magnitude of the problem; (3) Determinants of VAW based on social ecological framework; (4) Future recommendations to prevent VAW in Turkey based on social ecological framework. Second and third papers are qualitative research. . For this study five focus group interviews were conducted with 46 participants from two universities in Istanbul. The content analysis approach was used. Data were analyzed inductively by using Atlas.ti software program version Mac OS X. Results: First paper suggest that paternalistic culture and attitudes, gender inequality, lack of legal protections, and limited community assistance have an important influence on women’s experience of violence. Young age at marriage, personal abuse history, lower level of education, alcohol and substance abuse, men’s having multiple partners, low relationship satisfaction, arranged and forced marriage, poverty, lack of family and social support, lack of economic opportunities for women, social norms, laws and policies about VAW were the risk factors span the individual, relationship, community, and societal levels. The participants for the second and third papers had a mean age of 21.54 years. All students were single and seventeen of the forty-six participants were in a relationship. The two domains that characterize young men’s thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors related to masculinity were: (1) conceptualizations of masculinity, (2) masculine performativity. Young men identified “authority”, “toughness”, “self-sufficiency”, and “high achievement and success” concepts as the masculine identities of their perceived “real man”. Additionally, two concepts that characterize the young men’s hypermasculine performance were “being homophobic” and “having an active sex life”. Moreover, three major categories emerged about men’s gender roles in family life; (1) male breadwinner identity, (2) female breadwinner identity, and (3) doing or avoiding housework. Earning income to provide for the family and protecting the family were accepted as men’s major duties. Most of these young men had negative attitudes towards women’s employment. Men avoided housework due to masculine pride, feeling entitled, lack of time at home, parenting style, and tolerance to mess. Conclusion: VAW is one of the most pervasive, yet underestimated, social and public health problems in Turkey. In order to prevent VAW in Turkey, prevention policies and programs should involve a continuum of activities that address multiple levels of the social ecological framework. Gender norms are one of the most crucial factors influencing all these levels. Young Turkish men still hold traditional gender roles and masculinity concepts. Healthy gender identity among college-aged Turkish men needs to be supported. There are no programs involving adult or adolescent men in the promoting gender equality and prevention of VAW. There is a need to design to implement an intervention program to engage men and boys to develop new beliefs and attitudes about gender equality with the long-term goal of preventing VAW.
- Nursing - Seattle