Effects of dietary histamine on fish meal protein quality to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Fairgrieve, William Thomas, Jr., 1952-
MetadataShow full item record
Dietary histamine, and its derivative, gizzerosine, cause gizzard erosion and black vomit disease in chickens. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fed fish meal that evoked black vomit disease in chickens reportedly developed gastric lesions, but the role of thermal abuse and histamine content in the formation of ulcerogenic compounds had not been fully elucidated. The effects of dietary histamine and heat treatment on feed palatability, protein quality, and gastric abnormalities were evaluated in feeding trials with juvenile rainbow trout.No correlation was found between feeding behavior and feed intake by rainbow trout and the results of toxicity bioassays with chickens. Palatability of nontoxic fish meal and casein was improved by histamine supplementation (0 vs. 2,000 mg/kg dry diet) and heat treatment. Free histamine in unheated fish meal was slightly repellent. Histamine and heat treatment of casein or of two other sources of fish meal had minimal effect on feed intake.No correlation was found between the nutritional quality of fish meal protein to juvenile rainbow trout and the results of toxicity bioassays with chickens. Protein retention and growth was similar among groups of fish pair-fed diets containing fish meal either acutely toxic of nontoxic to chickens. Protein retention and fish growth was not interactively affected by histamine supplementation (0, 500, 1,000, 1,500, or 2,000 mg/kg dry diet) and heat treatment of nontoxic fish meal or casein.Fish fed toxic Chilean fish meal for 111 d had distended stomachs, but no lesions or cellular abnormalities were observed. Similar effects were obtained by histamine supplementation (2,000 mg/kg dry diet) and heat treatment of nontoxic fish meal and casein. Histamine toxicity was not affected by addition of two suspected potentiators, putrescine and cadaverine.These studies showed that the results of chicken bioassays cannot be used to predict fish meal palatability and nutritional quality to rainbow trout. Fish meals acutely toxic to chickens are not acutely toxic to rainbow trout, and chronic dietary exposure results in stomach distention without reductions in feed intake or fish growth rates.
- Fisheries