Designing Mixed-Income Communities: Comparing New Urbanism and Everyday Urbanism to Narratives and Lessons Learned from Three Design Teams of Three HOPE VI Projects
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This thesis systematically examines linkages among deconcentration of poverty in US public housing programs, and the Everyday Urbanism and New Urbanism movements. A hybrid-urbanism concept appears to emerge from the research findings. This thesis demonstrates, in particular, that these concepts and theories have guided many designers and planners for the Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) program inaugurated by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in 1992. Since the 1960s, deconcentration of poverty concepts have been central to the discourse about revitalizing urban regions and cities. Proponents for clearing of public housing projects and developing mixed-income communities in their place have helped to orient numerous federal housing policies and programs, including HOPE VI. While only a few HOPE VI urban designers, planners and architects have practiced strategies specifically influenced by Everyday Urbanism, New Urbanism principles have been widely adopted, and HUD leadership has strongly endorsed New Urbanism principles for all HOPE VI projects. This thesis contends that the New Urbanism principles employed in HOPE VI projects limit the urban and architectural design potential of these mixed-income communities, creating excessively tidy and perfect built environments that address community primarily from the god view instead of from the street view. The thesis proposes, that by embracing ideas of Everyday Urbanism, and adjusting the principles of New Urbanism, mixed-income developments can be more effective in reaching the needs of a wider constituency of residents. The thesis begins by examining Everyday Urbanism and New Urbanism theories and emphasizes how particular kinds of "urbanism" affects housing policy and design. This is followed by a review of U.S. housing policies and programs that have influenced the practice of deconcentrating poverty in urban areas. This review focuses particularly on stigma associated with public housing residents living in high concentrated poverty areas. As a practical demonstration of the historical and theoretical research, the thesis then examines in detail the experiences of architects involved in three HOPE VI projects. The aim of the narrative section is to understand how community planning and design professionals seek to promote the building of strong communities while enriching the lives of public housing residents in these projects, and to assess the results of these efforts. The study focuses on the work of three architects: Tom Eanes, Michael Pyatok and Brian Sullivan. Each directed design teams involved in HOPE VI, mixed-income revitalization projects: New Holly, Seattle, Washington; Lion Creek Crossings, Oakland, California; and High Point, Seattle, Washington. The interviews discussions and the subsequent analysis examine the methods of planning, design and development used in the projects. This probe helps to identify lessons learned by the design teams and identify best practices. What emerges from this research is a concept of hybrid-urbanism. This mixture of principles and variables from `ambiguous' urbanisms in general and the two different urbanisms (Everyday + New Urbanism principles) can inform housing policy, as well as influence mixed-income developments in the future.
- Architecture