Effective Use of Cross-Domain Parsing in Automatic Speech Recognition and Error Detection
MetadataShow full item record
Automatic speech recognition (ASR), the transcription of human speech into text form, is used in many settings in our society, ranging from customer service applications to personal assistants on mobile devices. In all such settings it is important for the system to know when it is making errors, so that it may ask the user to rephrase or restate their previous utterance. Such errors are often syntactically anomalous. The primary goal of this thesis is to find novel uses of parsing for automatic detection and correction of ASR errors. We start by developing a framework for ASR rescoring and automatic error detection leveraging syntactic parsing in conjunction with a maximum entropy classifier, and find that parsing helps with error detection, even when the parser is trained on out-of-domain data. In particular, features capturing parser reliability are used to improve the detection of out-of-vocabulary (OOV) and name errors. However, parsers trained on out-of-domain treebanks do not provide any benefit to ASR rescoring. This observation motivates our work on domain adaptation of parsing, with the objective of directly improving both transcription accuracy and error detection. We develop two weakly supervised domain adaptation methods which use error labels, but no hand-annotated parses: a self-training approach to directly improve the probabilistic context-free grammar (PCFG) model used in parsing, as well as a novel model combination method using a discriminative log-linear model to augment the generative PCFG. We apply both methods to ASR rescoring and error detection tasks. We find that self-training improves the ability of our parser to select the correct ASR hypothesis. The log-linear adaptation improves both OOV and name error detection tasks, and self-training performed after log-linear adaptation further improves the reliability of the parser, while producing smaller, faster models. Finally, motivated by empirical observations that the presence of names in an utterance is often indicated by words located far apart from the names themselves, we develop a general long-distance phrase pattern learning algorithm using word-level semantic similarity measures, and apply it to the problem of name error detection. This novel feature learning method leads to more robust classification, both when used independently of parsing, and in conjunction with parse features.
- Electrical engineering