Finite-Difference Methods for Second-Order Wave Equations with Reduced Dispersion Errors
Finite Difference (FD) schemes have been used widely in computing approximations for partial differential equations for wave propagation, as they are simple, flexible and robust. However, even for stable and accurate schemes, waves in the numerical schemes can propa- gate at different wave speeds than in the true medium. This phenomenon is called numerical dispersion error. Traditionally, FD schemes are designed by forcing accuracy conditions, and in spite of the advantages mentioned above, such schemes suffer from numerical dispersion errors. Traditionally, two ways have been used for the purpose of reducing dispersion error: increasing the sampling rate and using higher order accuracy. More recently, Finkelstein and Kastner (2007, 2008) propose a unified methodology for deriving new schemes that can accommodate arbitrary requirements for reduced phase or group velocity dispersion errors, defined over any region in the frequency domain. Such schemes are based on enforcing exact phase or group velocity at certain preset wavenumbers. This method has been shown to reduce dispersion errors at large wavenumbers. In this dissertation, we study the construction and behaviors of FD schemes designed to have reduced numerical dispersion error. We prove that the system of equations to select the coefficients in a centered FD scheme for second order wave equations with specified order of accuracy and exact phase velocity at preset wavenumbers can always be solved. Furthermore, from the existence of such schemes, we can show that schemes which reduce the dispersion error uniformly in an interval of the frequency domain can be constructed from a Remez algorithm. In these new schemes we propose, we can also specify wavenumbers where the exact phase or group dispersion relation can be satisfied. For an incoming signal consisting of waves of different wavenumbers, our schemes can give more accurate wave propagation speeds. Furthermore, when we apply our schemes in two dimensional media, we can obtain schemes that give small dispersion error at all propagation angles.
- Mathematics